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Table 1 Phenotypic traits modified by tick-borne pathogens in the main vectors of B. burgdorferi

From: Search for blood or water is influenced by Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ricinus

Modified trait Tick species a Stage b Pathogens c Detailed effect Reference
Questing activity Ip A Bb Walk shorter distances [50,79]
Ip N, A Bb Questing activity is increased but inhibited more importantly by temperature [80]
Ip N, A Bb Questing triggered by higher temperature and lower relative humidity [66]
Ip A Bb Reach higher questing height, walk slower [52]
Ip A TBEv Walk faster, reach higher questing height, more tolerant of desiccation [50]
Ir L, N, A Bb Walk shorter distances [81]
Ir N Bb Walk less, stay in a relatively dry environment [53]
Ir A TBEv Walk faster, more tolerant to tick-repellent [82]
Is N Bb Walk longer distances, reach higher questing height, attracted by vertical surfaces [51]
Is A Bb Walk shorter distances, reach lower questing height, avoid vertical surfaces [51]
Survival & energy reserves Ip, Ir A Bb Prolonged survival [67]
Ir N, A Bb Increased survival under desiccating conditions [56]
Ir N Bb Higher energy reserves (fat content) [61]
Is N Ap Increased survival under cold conditions [55]
Is N Bm Increased blood meal size [63]
  1. a Ip, I. persulcatus; Ir, I. ricinus; Is, I. scapularis.
  2. bL, larvae; N, nymphs; A, adults.
  3. c Ap, A. phagocytophilum; Bm, B. microti; Bb, B. burgdorferi s.l.; TBEv, TBE virus.