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Table 1 The number of A. hoyamushi in tunics in various KS phases, as measured using qPCR

From: Quantitative assessment of Azumiobodo hoyamushi distribution in the tunic of soft tunic syndrome–affected ascidian Halocynthia roretzi using real-time polymerase chain reaction

Unit Tunic Kitamura's scale
1 2 3 4
# of A. hoyamushi/ 0.25cm2 BS 2.9 ± 0.4 160.1 ± 16.7 2,994.6 ± 1,783.5 16,066.9 ± 2,609.9
AS 2.9 ± 0.6 46.6 ± 30.3 2,337.6 ± 424.1 4,121.0 ± 281.7
A 0.2 ± 0.2 0.4 ± 0.5 1,912.9 ± 650.3 5,053.2 ± 2,560.8
B 0.0 ± 0.0 38.0 ± 1.1 2,339.4 ± 257.5 5,599.2 ± 915.1
C 0.2 ± 0.0 3.6 ± 0.0 1,362.0 ± 462.1 5,396.1 ± 507.3
# of A. hoyamushi/ GT BS 106.0 ± 1.3 7,939.6 ± 1,241.9 39,093.3 ± 18,334.2 617,004.1 ± 10,949.2
AS 85.5 ± 1.8 3,012.5 ± 2,607.6 70,866.4 ± 6,961.5 131,835.5 ± 37,352.4
A 6.0 ± 2.6 12.4 ± 13.7 49,108.0 ± 6,987.4 169,404.2 ± 94,002.7
B 0.3 ± 0.4 1,005. 2 ± 44.8 59,569.7 ± 6,555.5 205,291.7 ± 24,037.0
C 3.1 ± 0.6 114.9 ± 23.6 31,702.4 ± 7,770.8 211,555.4 ± 86,528.5
  1. Kitamura's scale (KS)-1: ascidians with no soft tunic syndrome (STS) symptoms but collected from STS-affected population; KS-2: ascidians exhibiting mild STS; KS-3: ascidians with advanced STS; KS-4: seriously diseased ascidians with ruptured tunics.
  2. BS: branchial siphon; AS: atrial siphon.