Effect of hemozoin
before and after the blood meal. Female A. gambiae were treated with 200 μg/ml sHz and fed with P. berghei-infected or naïve blood 24 h later. The expression of (A) REL2-F, REL1, Caspar, Cactus and (B) six immune related genes transcription was measured in the fat body before and after blood ingestion. Relative induction fold change was determined by qRT-PCR comparison to PBS-treated controls. Values represent the mean and SD of three independent experiments. Differences and P values: *(p < 0.05), **(p < 0.01), using the Student t test.