Expression of cell surface markers and cytokine production in microglia. (A) Each value represents the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the marker ± the standard deviation of four replicate samples. “–” indicates no stimuli and “+” indicates infection with N. caninum tachyzoites (Nc1). (B) IL-6 and IL-12p40 in the culture supernatant were analyzed by cytokine ELISA. Each value represents the mean ± standard deviation of four replicate samples. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA tests followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison. **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001. Reproducibility of the data was confirmed by two independent experiments.