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Table 2 Tick-borne pathogens and the role of ixodid ticks as vectors within China

From: Tick-borne pathogens and the vector potential of ticks in China

Tick species Pathogens Diseases References
Ixodes  
I. persulcatus B. burgdorferi; human granulocytc Ehrlichia (HGE)b; Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia (SFGR) b; Ehrlichia b; Anaplasma phagocytophila b; tick-borne Encephalitis virus (TBEV); Babesia bigemina, Ba. bovis Lyme disease; Ehrlichiosis; spotted fever; human granulocytic anaplasmosis; babesiosis [18-25]
I. kazakstani B. burgdorferi a Lyme disease [26]
I. nipponensis B. afzelii a,b; TBEV a,b Lyme disease; tick-borne encephalitis; [27,28]
I. ovatus Ehrlichia a,b; TBEV; R. japonica a,b Ehrlichiosis; tick-borne encephalitis; Oriental spotted fever [29-31]
I. granulates B. burgdorferi Lyme disease [32]
I. acutitarsus B. burgdorferi Lyme disease [33]
I. sinensis R. monacensis b; Ehrlichia, Bartonella, and Borrelia b; B. garinii b Lyme disease; Mediterranean Spotted Fever [34]
Amblyomma  
Am. geoemydae Reptile-associated Borrelia spp. a,b;relapsing fever Borrelia sp. a,b Relapsing fever [35]
Am. helvolum SFGR a,b; Rickettsia sp. a,b Spotted fever [36,37]
Am. testudinarium R. tamurae sp. nov.a,b; Ehrlichia chaffeensis b; Human monocytic ehrlichiosis [38,39]
Haemaphysalis  
H. longicornis New bunyavirusb; B. burodorferi; A. phagocytophilum b; SFGRa,b; Babesia spa; Huaiyangshan virusb; Borrelia, Bartonella, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia b; Theileria uilenbergi b; Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome; Lyme disease; human granulocytic anaplasmosis; spotted fever; babesiosis; Huaiyangshan hemorrhagic fever [40-47]
H. concinna B. garinii b; HGEb; SFGRb; TBEVb Human granulocytic Ehrlichiosis [23,48-50]
H. punctata B. burgdorferi sensu strictob; Ba. major and T. orientalis; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virusa; Rickettsia a,b;
R. aeschlimannii a,b; An. phagocytophilum b; Flavivirus b
Lyme disease; Babesiosis; tick-borne encephalitis; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever [3,51-55]
H. cornigera R. heilongjiangensis a,b Spotted fever [31]
H. erinacei SFGRa,b Spotted fever [56]
H. flava Ehrlichia b; R. japonica a,b EhIichiosis; Japanese Spotted fever [57,58]
H. formosensis R. asiatica sp. nov.a,b; Kyasanur Forest disease virusa,b; R. japonica a,b; An. phagocytophilum a,b Spotted fever; Kyasanur Forest disease; [31,59-61]
H. hystricis An. phagocytophilum b; R. japonica a,b Human granulocytic anaplasmosis; Japanese Spotted fever [31,62]
H. japonica B. garinii b; TBEVa,b Lyme disease; tick-borne encephalitis [63,64]
H. kitaokai SFGRa,b Spotted Fever [65]
H. lagrangei Anaplasma spp.a,b; Rickettsia a,b; Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis; Rickettsioses [66,67]
H. bispinosa B. burodorferi; T. sergenti; Ba. bigemina Lyme disease; Piroplasmosis [32,68,69]
H. megaspinosa A. bovis and An. phagocytophilum a,b; SFGRa,b Human granulocytic anaplasmosis; spotted fever; [65,70]
H. ornithophila SFGRa,b Spotted Fever [71]
H. phasiana TBEVa,b Tick-borne encephalitis [64]
H. qinghaiensis T. uilenbergi b; An. phagocytophilum b; Theileria spp.; Human granulocytic anaplasmosis; theileriosis [72-74]
H. spinigera Flavivirusa,b Kyasanur forest disease [3]
H. tibetensis GRD spirochetes Unknown [75]
H. wellingtoni Kyasanur forest disease virusa,b; Eubacterium sp. strain Hw124 and Eubacterium sp. strain Hw191a,b Kyasanur forest disease; [66,76]
H. campanulata Coxiella burneti b Q fever [77]
H. yeni R. sibirica b North-Asia Spotted fever [78]
Hyalomma  
Hy. anatolicum Trypanosoma theileri-like flagellatesa,b; Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virusa,b; T. annulata Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever [79-81]
Hy. asiaticum Hemorrhagic fever virusb; R. mongolotimonae b; T. annulata; Rickettsiale b Hemorrhagic fever; theileriosis [81-84]
Hy. scupense T. annulata Theileriosis [81]
Hy. rufipes T. annulata a,b Theileriosis [85]
Hy. dromedarii Kadam virusa,b Unknown [86]
Dermacentor  
D. nuttalli B. burgdorferi b; SFGRb; HGE; Ba. caballi and Ba. equi a,b; Rickettsiaes Lyme disease; North Asia Spotted Fever; human granulocytic ehrlichiosis; babesiosis [23,84,87-89]
D. reticulatus R. helvetica a,b; R. slovaca a,b; An. phagocytophila a,b; Babesia a,b Unexplained febrile illness; Spotless rickettsiosis; human granulocytic anaplasmosis; babesiosis [90-93]
D. silvarum HGEb; E. chaffeensis b; TBEV; R. raoultii sp. nov.b; R. heilongjiangensis a,b, R. sibirica b Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis; Encephalitis; Spotted Fever; [23,94-98]
D. auratus SFGRb Spotted Fever [99]
D. everestianus An. ovis b; R. raoultii–like bacteriab; Bacillus tularensis b Spotted Fever; Tularemia [100-102]
D. marginatus B. burgdorferi b; R. slovaca a,b Lyme disease; tick-borne lymphadenopathy [51,103]
D. niveus SFGRa,b; An. ovis b; Bacillus tularensis b Spotted Fever; Tularemia [100,102,104]
D. sinicus SFGRb Spotted fever [105]
D. taiwanensis R. japonica a,b; Japanese Spotted fever [106]
Rhipicephalus  
Rh. microplus A. marginale b, Ba. bigemina, Ba. bovis, T. equi; E. chaffeensis a,b; TBEVb; C. burnetii b Babesiosis; theileriosis; Encephalitis; Q fever [2,107,108]
Rh. bursa An. marginale b, An. ovis b, An. phagocytophilum b, Ba. bigemina b, Ba. ovis b, Bhanja virusa,b, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virusa,b Human granulocytic anaplasmosis; babesiosis; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever [3,109]
Rh. pumilio SFGRa,b; R. conorii b; An. phagocytophilum b Spotted fever; human granulocytic anaplasmosis [110,111]
Rh. rossicus West Nile virusa,b West Nile fever [112]
Rh. sanguineus Ba. vogeli b, E. canis b, R. conorii a,b, R. massiliae a,b, R. rickettsii a,b Babesiosis; Mediterranean spotted fever [3,113]
Rh. turanicus R. conorii a,b, R. massiliae a,b Mediterranean spotted fever [114]
Rh. haemaphysaloides SFGRb; Ba. bigemina b, B. bovis b Spotted fever; Babesiosis [109]
  1. aThese pathogenic microorganisms have been recorded outside China.
  2. bThese pathogenic species have been detected within ticks or have been shown to be transmitted by ticks under controlled experimental conditions.