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Table 3 Overview of remote sensing data and derived environmental variables investigated for spatial analyses of schistosomiasis from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2014

From: Risk profiling of schistosomiasis using remote sensing: approaches, challenges and outlook

Satellite sensor Environmental variable Sensor combination Geographic area Temporal coverage Reference data Reference(s) *
Snail Human infection
NOAA-AVHRR spatial resolution: 1.1 km Diurnal temperature difference NDVI Landsat Egypt Monthly time series 1990-1991 Snail occurrence, infection rate (water survey 1 km distance to population survey) Survey prevalence (rural health units) [80]
  LST, NDVI SRTM Tanzania Monthly time series 1985-1998   Survey prevalence (school) [81]
  LST, NDVI   Ethiopia – East Africa Annual + seasonal composites 1992-1996   Survey prevalence (town/village) – 5 km buffer [82]
  LST, NDVI   Ethiopia Annual + seasonal composites 1992-1996 Snail occurrence Survey prevalence (town/village) – 5 km buffer [83]
  LST, NDVI   Cameroon 1985-1998   Survey prevalence (district – stratified at school level) [84]
  LST, NDVI Landsat GTOPO30 Uganda Not indicated   Survey prevalence, infection intensity (school/village) [85]
  LST, NDVI   Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda Annual + seasonal composites 1992-1995 Snail occurrence CEGET/WHO atlas – 5 km buffer [86]
  Land cover MODIS, Landsat, METEOSAT, GTOPO30 Côte d’Ivoire 1992/1993   Survey prevalence (school) [87,88]
  LST, NDVI GTOPO30 Tanzania 1982-1998   Survey prevalence (school) [89]
  LST, NDVI GTOPO30 East Africa 1982-2000   Survey prevalence (school) [90]
  Land cover GTOPO30 Côte d’Ivoire 1992/1993   Survey prevalence (school) [91]
  LST, NDVI   Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger Not indicated   Survey prevalence (school) [92]
  LST, NDVI   Nigeria 2001-2002   Survey prevalence (school) [93]
  LST, NDVI   Zambia 1992-1995 Snail occurrence, cercarial shedding Survey prevalence, infection intensity (school/village) [94]
  LST, NDVI   East Africa 1982-2000   Survey prevalence (school) [95]
  LST, NDVI   Tanzania Not indicated   Survey prevalence (school) [96]
  LST, NDVI   Burkina Faso, Mali 1982-1998   Survey prevalence (school) [97]
  NDVI   Sudan Not indicated   Survey prevalence (village) [98]
  LST, NDVI SRTM Sierra Leone Not indicated   Survey prevalence (school) [99,100]
  LST, NDVI   Ghana Not indicated   Survey prevalence (school) [101]
MODIS spatial resolution: 1 km, 500 m, 250 m LST, NDVI NOAA-AVHRR, Landsat, METEOSAT, GTOPO30 Côte d’Ivoire Monthly time series January + November 2002   Survey prevalence (school) [87,88]
  LST, NDVI   Uganda Annual + seasonal composites 2000-2003 Snail occurrence Survey prevalence (school) [102]
  LST, NDVI   Uganda Annual + seasonal composites 2000-2003 Snail occurrence Survey prevalence (school) [103]
  LST, NDVI, Land cover GTOPO30 West Africa 2000-2008   Survey prevalence (school) [104]
  LST, NDVI Land cover GTOPO30 East Africa 2000-2009   Survey prevalence (school/community) [105,106]
  LST, NDVI METEOSAT, SRTM Côte d’Ivoire Not indicated   Survey prevalence (school) [107]
Landsat TM/ETM + spatial resolution: 30 m, 60 m Spectral bands: (blue(1), red(3), mir(5), thermal(6)) NDVI Tasseled cap: brightness, greenness, wetness NOAA-AVHRR Egypt May 1990 Number, distribution, infection rate Survey prevalence (rural health units) [80]
  Water body map NOAA-AVHRR, GTOPO30 Uganda March 2000   Survey prevalence, infection intensity (school/village) [85]
  Settlements, roads, rivers NOAA-AVHRR, MODIS, METEOSAT, GTOPO30 Côte d’Ivoire January + November 2002   Survey prevalence (school) [87,88]
  NDMSI (normalized difference moisture stress index) Ikonos, SRTM Kenya June 1986 + January 2003 Snail/shell occurrence   [51]
Ikonos spatial resolution: 1 m Land cover Landsat, SRTM Kenya March Snail/shell occurrence   [41,51,108]
METEOSAT spatial resolution: 8 km Rainfall estimates NOAA-AVHRR, MODIS, Landsat, GTOPO30 Côte d’Ivoire September 2001–August 2002   Survey prevalence (school) [87,88]
Rainfall estimates MODIS, SRTM Côte d’Ivoire Not indicated   Survey prevalence (school) [107]
SRTM spatial resolution: 90 m Altitude NOAA-AVHRR Tanzania February 2000   Survey prevalence (school) [81]
  Altitude, slope, stream order, catchment   Côte d’Ivoire February 2000   Survey prevalence (school) [52,107]
  Altitude, slope, drainage network Landsat, Ikonos Kenya February 2000 Snail/shell occurrence   [51]
  Altitude NOAA-AVHRR Sierra Leone February 2000   Survey prevalence (school) [99]
GTOPO30 spatial resolution: 30 sec (ca. 1 km) Altitude NOAA-AVHRR, Landsat Uganda 1994-1997   Survey prevalence, Infection intensity (school/village) [85]
  Altitude NOAA-AVHRR, MODIS, METEOSAT, Landsat Côte d’Ivoire 1994-1997    [87,88]
  Altitude NOAA-AVHRR Tanzania 1994-1997   Survey prevalence (school) [89]
  Altitude NOAA-AVHRR East Africa 1994-1997   Survey prevalence (school) [90]
  Altitude NOAA-AVHRR East Africa 1994-1997   Survey prevalence (school) [91]
  Altitude MODIS Côte d’Ivoire 1994-1997   Survey prevalence (school) [104]
  Altitude MODIS East Africa 1994-1997   Survey prevalence (school/community) [106]
  1. *References are listed manifold if the study investigated data from more than one remote sensor.