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Table 3 Herd and environmental factors associated with the presence of F. hepatica infection in Danish bovine herds (n = 16,626) as diagnosed by meat inspection (2011 to 2013), in the final logistic regression model

From: Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of liver fluke infections in Danish cattle herds

Variable Class Frequency 1 Percentage positive Coefficient (S.E)
Intercept     −0.95 (0.41)b
Farm-type Conventional 15,759 40.43 −0.18 (0.14)
  Organic 867 53.52 ref
Production-type Non-dairy2 12,324 35.22 0.21 (0.14)
  Dairy 4,302 58 reference
Distance to the nearest fluke positive herd3     −0.19 (0.02)a
Slaughterhouse A 1,862 42.16 0.58 (0.07)a
  B 2,669 56.13 1.21 (0.06)a
  C 2,006 47.51 0.66 (0.07)a
  D 2,378 40.92 0.44 (0.07)a
  E 725 50.07 0.91 (0.09)a
  F 1,025 41.76 1.03 (0.08)a
  G 575 40.17 0.62 (0.10)a
  H 1,460 62.12 1.53 (0.07)a
  Other 3,926 17.75 reference
Streams Present 4,769 44.87 0.16 (0.04)a
  Absent 11,857 39.6 reference
Wetlands Present 6,567 45.29 0.31 (0.04)a
  Absent 10,059 38.38 reference
Cropland Present 16,582 41.12 −0.88 (0.36)b
  Absent 44 36.36 ref
Pastures Present 984 55.28 0.38 (0.07)a
  Absent 15,642 40.22 reference
Dry-land Present 10,562 42.08 −0.08 (0.04)b
  Absent 6,064 39.43 reference
Herd-size Small (<30) 9,028 26.09 reference
  Medium (≥30 to < 100) 3,200 53.41 1.17 (0.27)b
  Large (≥100) 4,398 63.01 1.92 (0.23)b
BuyInfYN4 Yes 1,659 61.18 0.68 (0.25)b
  Unknown 3,106 55.02 −0.15 (0.21)b
  No 11,861 34.66 reference
Farm-type*BuyInfYN Conventional*Yes 1,547 60.31 0.09 (0.26)
  Conventional*Unknown 2,962 54.90 0.65 (0.22)a
  Conventional*No 11,250 33.88 reference
Farm-type*Herd-size Conventional*Small 8,726 26,08 reference
  Conventional*Medium 3,045 52.97 −0.56 (0.23)b
  Conventional*Large 3,988 62.24 −0.48 (0.19)a
Production-type*Herd-size Non-dairy*Small 8,760 26.03 reference
  Non-dairy*Medium 2,640 55.72 0.42 (0.17)a
  Non-dairy*Large 924 63.85 −0.06 (0.17)
  1. 1Number of herds per category.
  2. 2Includes large and small beef herds, heifer raising herds, large and small veal production herds.
  3. 3Distance in km, mean = 1.28, median = 1.05, 5th percentile = 0.26, 95th percentile = 3.06 km.
  4. 4Trade with infected herds (Yes, No, Unknown) where Unknown represented herds with unknown infection status.
  5. a,bP-value ≤ 0.01 and ≤ 0.05, respectively.