MSP-1 stimulation alters IL-10 but not Th2 responses. Isolated PBMCs (2 x 105/well) from NEN (n = 12) or O. volvulus-infected MF+ (n = 164) or a-MF (n = 46) patients were stimulated with MSP-1 (0.25 μg/ml) for 72 hours. Thereafter, levels of IL-5 (A), IL-13 (B) and IL-10 (C) were measured in the culture supernatants via ELISA. Data are plotted as fold increase over unstimulated controls. Graphs show box whiskers with median, interquartile ranges and outliers. Statistical significances between the indicated groups were obtained after Kruskal-Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests. (D) MSP-1 induced IL-10 levels were correlated with the amount of IL-5 in plasma  and tested for statistical significance using the spearman correlation test.