Elevated innate cytokines in infected individuals. Isolated PBMCs (2 x 105/well) from NEN (n = 12) or O. volvulus-infected MF+ (n = 164) or a-MF (n = 46) patients were stimulated with either anti-CD3/anti-CD28 (10 and 2.5 μg/ml respectively, A and B) or with MSP-1 (0.25 μg/ml, (C and D) for 72 hours. Thereafter, levels of IL-6 (A and C) and TNF-α (B and D) were measured in the culture supernatants via ELISA. Data are plotted as fold increase over unstimulated controls. Graphs show box whiskers with median, interquartile ranges and outliers. Statistical significances between the indicated groups were obtained after Kruskal-Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests. MSP-1 induced IL-6 (E) and TNF-α (F) levels were correlated with the amount of IL-5 in plasma  and tested for statistical significance using the spearman correlation test.