Antileishmanial effect of
promastigotes. (a). Growth Kinetics Assay. 2 × 106 ml−1 stationary phase promastigotes were grown in the presence of different A. indica fractions: A. indica leaves hexane (ALH), ethanol (ALE) and aqueous (ALA); A. indica bark hexane (ABH), ethanol (ABE) and aqueous (ABA); A. indica seeds hexane (ASH), ethanol (ASE) and aqueous (ASA). Additional experimental groups included parasite control (without any treatment), and pentamidine. ***P < 0.001 in comparison to parasite control. (b). Growth Reversibility Analysis. L. donovani promastigotes (2 × 106 ml−1) were incubated with ALE, ASE, pentamidine and DMSO (solvent control, 0.5%) and growth reversal after drug treatment was analyzed as described in Methods. ***P < 0.001 with respect to parasite control.