Impact of ALE and ASE on cellular events leading to induction of apoptosis. (a). Effect of A. indica fractions on Ψm in L. donovani promastigotes. Untreated and treated parasites (2 × 106 ml−1, 500 μg ml−1) were incubated for 72 h and stained with JC-1 and acquired in a flow cytometer. Red and green fluorescence positive cells were separately gated and their ratio was represented as relative Ψm values. ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01 in comparison to parasite control. (b). ROS generation in L. donovani promastigotes. Leishmania parasites (2 × 106 ml−1) were grown in the presence or absence of bioactive fractions and pentamidine (500 μg ml−1) for 72 h and stained with H2DCFDA. Data was analyzed in the form of histograms where a shift in MFI in P2 gated region was recorded.