Assessment of Th1 modulatory potential of ALE and ASE. (a). Evaluation of DTH response as an index of CMI. DTH responses were measured 2 weeks post treatment with the bioactive fractions and AmB. The response is expressed as difference (mm) between the thickness of right food pad (injected with 800 μg ml−1 of FT) and the left foot pad (injected with PBS), measured after 24 h. ***P < 0.001 with respect to INF, ns-not significant. (b). Serum levels of IgG isotypes in bioactive fractions treated BALB/c mice. At 2 weeks post-treatment, the serum samples from different groups were assayed for Leishmania antigen specific IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies by ELISA. ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01 and *P < 0.005 with respect to INF. # indicates statistical significance in INF and VC groups with respect to normal control in IgG1 plots. (c). Estimation of NO generation in vivo. NO was quantified as nitrite by Griess reaction in supernatants of SLA-stimulated splenocytes derived from the indicated groups. ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01 and ns-not significant with respect to infection control.