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Table 1 General schema of the Aedes albopictus surveillance strategies and procedures adopted in Canton Ticino (Switzerland) from 2000 to 2013

From: Strategies of a thirteen year surveillance programme on Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) in southern Switzerland

Surveillance system First period (2000-2003) Second period (2004-2008) Third period (2009-2013)
Survey survey aims detect mosquito presence at it's arrival intercept mosquito at arrival and analyse it's spread analyse mosquito's spread and oversee it's densities
surveyed areas points of entry and development (major parking places, cemeteries, parks, etc) and resting places along the highway points of entry and development (major parking places, cemeteries, parks, etc), industrial areas, whole municipalities (if positive), resting places and parking's along the highway whole municipalities with grid system, resting places and parking's along the highway
site selection for trap positioning GLZ GLZ GLZ and municipalities
traps managing GLZ GLZ municipalities
collection with other traps no other traps used BG-sentinel, Human Landing Collection BG-sentinel, Human Landing Collection
contact with residents phone, mail and e-mail (shipping suspicious insects) phone, mail and e-mail (shipping suspicious insects) phone, mail and e-mail (shipping suspicious insects) and web page
management of resident breeding sites inspection GLZ GLZ GLZ and municipalities
warm season survey period mid-June till mid-October April till mid-October May till end-September
cold season survey period no survey no survey December till May (GLZ)
Control control aims elimination elimination or control of densities control of densities
decision, responsibility and supervision of treatments GLZ GLZ GLZ
treatments timing once positive once positive once positive or monthly if most of municipality was found positive
treatments areas around positive site around positive site or the entire municipality (private and public areas) the entire municipality (private and public areas)
treatments execution GLZ GLZ (with help of municipality and Civil Protection) municipality with help of Civil Protection under the supervision of GLZ
larvicide used Bti Bti or diflubenzuron (for large scale treatments) diflubenzuron or Bti (if requested from the municipality)
adulticide used permethrin permethrin permethrin (only in schools etc. or for epidemic risk reduction)
removal of breeding sites GLZ GLZ and municipality GLZ and municipality (ordinance)
areas concerned for removal of breeding sites around positive site door-to-door when reported
information media (newspapers, radio and television) media (newspapers, radio and television), web page and specific leaflets media (newspapers, radio, television), web page, specific leaflets and instruction on Bti tablets usage for citizens
  1. GLZ: Gruppo cantonale di Lavoro Zanzare, see text.
  2. Bti: Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis.