Phylogenetic analysis of the fragment of the VGSC gene spanning the F1534C mutation in Ae. aegypti in Malaysia. (A) Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree of VGSC fragment showing two main clades corresponding to a resistant (R) and susceptible (S) haplotypes. (B) TCS network for the VGSC haplotypes between susceptible and resistant permethrin samples across whereas (C) and (D) is for Penang and Johor Bharu only respectively. Haplotypes are represented as an oval or a rectangle shape, scaled to reflect their frequencies. Lines connecting haplotypes and each node represent a single mutation event (respective polymorphic positions are given above branches). Green shapes represent haplotypes with the resistant allele (1534C); Green shapes represent haplotypes with the susceptible allele (F1534).