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Table 2 List of key studies of Theileria/theileriosis in Pakistan

From: Tick-borne diseases of bovines in Pakistan: major scope for future research and improved control

Host (s) Location (s) Study population and sampling design Sampling period Detection method (s) Percentage of test positive animals (proportion) Reference
Cattle Buffaloes
Cattle (Sahiwal x Holstein-Friesian) Faisalabad Animals suspected of theileirosis from the University farm May-Jun 1982 Blood smear 100 (3/3) NA [39]
Buffaloes, cattle (local breeds) Hyderabad Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient Oct 1990 to Dec 1991 Blood smear 3 (3/100) 5 (5/100) [40]
Cattle (Jersey, Sahiwal, Holstein-Friesian, cross–bred) Faisalabad Animals suspected of theileriosis from local private dairy farms; convenient Mar 1993 to Sep 1998 Clinical signs and blood smear 79.5 (89/112) NA [38]
Buffaloes, cattle (local and exotic breeds) Attock, Islamabad Healthy animals were from public livestock farms; convenient Sep 1999 to May 2001 Blood smear 0.98 (3/307) 0.6 (1/155) [41]
Cattle (local breeds) Peshawar Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient 2001 Blood smear 1.4 (4/285) NA [42]
Cattle (Friesian and Jersey) Kasur Healthy animals from a public livestock farm; convenient Jul 2003 to Jun 2004 Blood smear Holstein: 24 (48/200) NA [43]
Jersey: 15 (30/200)
Buffaloes Lahore Animals suspected of theileriosis from local private dairy farms; convenient Jul to Sep 2003 Blood smear NA 17.5 (107/600) [44]
Friesian cattle Kasur Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient - Blood smear, 1BS: 14 (14/100) NA [7]
PCR 2PCR: 36 (36/100)
Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cattle Sahiwal Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient Apr to Sep 2009 Blood smear 38.3 (115/300) NA [45]
Buffaloes, cattle (local breeds) Bahawalnagar, Bhakar, Layyah, Multan, Muzaffar Garh, Vehari Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient - Blood smear, BS: 3 (4/144); PCR: 19 (28/144) [37]
PCR
Buffaloes Karachi Healthy animals from the Landhi Dairy Colony; convenient Apr to Oct 2011 Blood smear N/A 2 (2/100) [46]
Cattle (local and exotic breeds) Sargodha Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; multi-stage cluster random Aug 2008 to Jul 2009 Blood smear 6.7 (24/350) N/A [47]
3Mixed: 2.6 (9/350)
Cattle (local and exotic breeds) Khushab, Rawalpindi, Sargodha Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient Sep 2009 to Aug 2010 Blood smear 5.14 (54/1050) N/A [48]
Cattle (local breeds) Kohat, Peshawar Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; simple random Nov 2010 to Feb 2011 Blood smear, BS: 5.3 (5/95) NA [36]
PCR PCR: 33.7 (32/95)
Ticks (Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma dromedarii) Faisalabad, Jhang, Khanewal Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient Jul, Aug 2007 PCR 4 Ha: 50 (10/20), 5 Hd: 20 (4/20)* [32]
Buffaloes, cattle (Sahiwal breed) Okara, Sheikhupura Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient - PCR 66.1 (41/62) 50 (20/40) [35]
  1. 1Blood smear; 2Polymerase chain reaction; 3Mixed infection of T. annulata with either A. marginale or B. bigemina; 4 Hyalomma anatolicum, 5 Hyalomma dromedarii; *host information was not provided; − denotes lack of information