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Table 3 List of key studies of bovine Babesia/babesiosis in Pakistan

From: Tick-borne diseases of bovines in Pakistan: major scope for future research and improved control

Pathogen (s) detected Host (s) Location (s) Study population and sampling design Sampling period Detection method (s) Percentage of test positive animals (proportion) Reference
Cattle Buffaloes
Babesia sp. Buffaloes, cattle (local breeds) Karachi Healthy animals slaughtered in abattoir; convenient Sep 1984 to Feb 1985 Blood smear 4.2 (4/95) 1.4 (3/219) [51]
Babesia sp. Buffaloes, cattle (local breeds) Hyderabad Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient Oct 1990 to Dec 1991 Blood smear 1 (1/100) 1 (1/100) [40]
Babesia sp. Buffaloes, cattle (local and exotic breeds) Attock, Islamabad Healthy animals from public livestock farms; convenient Sep 1999 to May 2001 Blood smear 0.65 (2/307) 0 (0/155) [41]
B. bigemina Cattle (local breeds) Peshawar Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient 2001 Blood smear 1 Bbi: 1.75 (5/285) Not applicable (NA) [42]
B. bovis 2 Bbo: 2.80 (8/285)
Babesia sp. Cattle (Friesian and Jersey) Kasur Healthy animals from a public livestock farm; convenient Jul 2003 to Jun 2004 Blood smear Holstein: 2.5 (5/200) NA [43]
Jersey: 2.5 (5/200)
B. bigemina Cattle (local breeds) Malakand Agency Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient - Blood smear 5.2 (42/794) NA [52]
Babesia sp. Cattle (local and exotic breeds) Malakand Agency Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient - Blood smear 6.6 (73/1100) NA [53]
B. bigemina Friesian cattle Kasur Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient - Blood smear, 3BS: Bbi = 6 (6/100); Bbo = 3 (3/100) NA [7]
B. bovis PCR
4PCR: Bbi = 13 (13/100); Bbo = 7 (7/100)
Babesia sp. Cattle (cross-bred calves) Sahiwal Healthy animals from a public livestock and local private dairy farms; convenient May to Jul 2005 Blood smear 7.2 (30/415) NA [54]
B. bigemina Cattle (cross-bred) Sahiwal Healthy animals from a public livestock farm; convenient Jun to Aug 2005 Blood smear, PCR BS: 18 (18/100) NA [49]
B. bovis PCR: 29 (29/100); Bbi = 18 (18/100); Bbo = 11 (11/100)
B. bovis Buffaloes, cattle (local breeds) Bahawalnagar, Bhakar, Layyah, Multan, Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient Jan to Aug 2010 Blood smear, PCR BS: 2.7 (4/144) PCR: 23.1 (9/39) [50]
PCR: 17.1 (18/105)
Muzaffar Garh, Vehari
B. bovis Buffaloes Karachi Healthy animals from the Landhi Dairy Colony; convenient Apr to Oct 2011 Blood smear N/A 3 (3/100) [46]
B. bigemina Cattle (local and exotic breeds) Sargodha Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; multi-stage cluster random Aug 2008 to Jul 2009 Blood smear 6.57 (23/350) NA [47]
5Mixed: 1.7 (6/350)
B. bigemina Cattle (local and exotic breeds) Khushab, Rawalpindi, Sargodha Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient Sep 2009 to Aug 2010 Blood smear 4.8 (50/1050) NA [48]
B. bigemina Cattle (local breeds) Charsadda, Swabi Healthy animals from local private dairy farms; convenient Jan 2010 to Dec 2011 Blood smear Bbi = 19 (19/100); Bbo = 11 (11/100) NA [55]
B. bovis
  1. 1 Babesia bigemina; 2 Babesia bovis; 3Blood smear; 4Polymerase chain reaction; 5Mixed infection of B. bigemina with either A. marginale or T. annulata; − denotes lack of information