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Table 1 Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) for the effect of leaf detritus species and intraspecific competition on Culex pipiens female and male time to eclosion (days) and wing length (mm). Standardized canonical coefficients (SCCs) describe the relative contribution of each life history trait to the multivariate effect

From: Asymmetric effects of native and exotic invasive shrubs on ecology of the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

Sex Variable df Pillai’s trace P SCCs
Eclosion time Wing length
Female Leaf 8 22.07 <0.001* 1.41 −0.33
Competition 4 18.81 <0.001* 1.01 −0.94
Leaf*Competition 16 5.05 <0.001* −0.92 1.02
Male Leaf 8 26.52 <0.001* 1.25 −0.27
Competition 4 22.79 <0.001* −0.44 1.21
Leaf*Competition 16 3.03 <0.001* 0.38 1.46
  1. Asterisks indicate statistically significant effects at α = 0.05