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Table 3 Model-averaged parameter estimates of the anti-Borrelia IgG response of the Scandinavian brown bears

From: Serological signature of tick-borne pathogens in Scandinavian brown bears over two decades

Parameter Model-averaged coefficients Estimate % Change SE Adj SE z value p Sig
Intercepta Intercept (yearlings in northern area) 3.421   0.0574 0.0575 59.513 <0.0001 ***
Contrast Juveniles 0.216 6.3 % 0.0613 0.0614 3.524 0.0004 ***
Contrast Young adults 0.350 10.2 % 0.0531 0.0532 6.569 <0.0001 ***
Contrast Adults 0.160 4.7 % 0.0871 0.0872 1.832 0.0669  
Contrast Old adults 0.237 6.9 % 0.1240 0.1242 1.91 0.0561  
Contrast Southern area −0.079 −2.3 % 0.0790 0.0791 0.994 0.3202  
Contrast Juveniles in southern area 0.113 3.3 % 0.0724 0.0725 1.559 0.1189  
Contrast Young adults in southern area 0.154 4.5 % 0.0643 0.0645 2.389 0.0169 *
Contrast Adults in southern area 0.292 8.5 % 0.0997 0.0999 2.92 0.0035 **
Contrast Old adults in southern area 0.074 2.2 % 0.1552 0.1555 0.477 0.6335  
Slopeb Capture year (yearlings in northern area) −0.002   0.0054 0.0054 0.315 0.7525  
Contrast Capture year in southern area 0.011 0.3 % 0.0059 0.0059 1.942 0.0521  
Contrast Capture year in juveniles 0.006 0.2 % 0.0108 0.0108 0.571 0.5681  
Contrast Capture year in young adults −0.003 −0.1 % 0.0095 0.0095 0.306 0.7595  
Contrast Capture year in adults 0.014 0.4 % 0.0147 0.0147 0.95 0.3421  
Contrast Capture year in old adults 0.024 0.6 % 0.0195 0.0195 1.217 0.2238  
Contrast Capture year in juveniles in southern area −0.011 −0.3 % 0.0133 0.0133 0.858 0.3907  
Contrast Capture year in young adults in southern area 0.010 0.3 % 0.0122 0.0122 0.816 0.4145  
Contrast Capture year in adults in southern area −0.025 −0.7 % 0.0172 0.0172 1.43 0.1529  
Contrast Capture year in old adults in southern area −0.043 −1.3 % 0.0215 0.0215 2.019 0.0434 *
  1. The parameter estimates for the anti-Borrelia IgG response of the brown bears were averaged over the candidate models in Table 2. Anti-Borrelia IgG values were measured in units of optical density (OD units) and were modelled as a function of study area, age group, capture year and their interactions. The intercept and slope are defined for the reference group (yearling bears in the northern area). The contrasts refer to the difference in the intercepts (or slopes) between each particular combination of age group and area and the reference group. The percentage change (% Change) expresses each contrast as a percentage of the intercept (3.421 OD units). Also shown are the standard error (SE), the adjusted standard error (Adj SE), the z value, the p value (p), and the statistical significance (Sig)
  2. aIntercept refers to the mean OD for the yearling bears in the northern area
  3. bSlope refers to the change in OD per year for the yearling bears in the northern area
  4. Significance codes: ‘***’ = p < 0.001; ‘**’ = 0.001 < p < 0.010; ‘*’ = 0.010 < p < 0.050