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Table 3 Estimated mean (with 95 % confidence intervals) of the posterior distributions of model parameters

From: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs: a quantitative approach to estimate the relative contributions of dogs, cats and foxes, and to assess the efficacy of advised interventions in dogs

  Urban areas Intermediate areas Rural areas
Young adults Adults Young adults Adults Young adults Adults
Population density (D), heads/km2       
 Dogsa 9 208.6 3.4 79.7 0.4 8.7
 Household catsa 32.5 755.5 5.7 131.8 0.5 12.5
 Stray cats 34.8 (15.1–54.4) 808.0 (352.7–1263.8) 0.3 (0.1–0.5) 6.9 (3.0–10.9) 0.01 (0.006–0.02) 0.3 (0.1–0.5)
 Foxes 0.004 (0.002–0.006) 0.005 (0.002–0.007) 0.3 (0.1–0.4) 0.3 (0.2–0.5) 0.7 (0.3–1.1) 0.9 (0.4–1.4)
Prevalence (P), %       
 Dogsd 3.2 (0.7–7.6) 2.6 (1.0–5.1) 3.5 (1.7–5.9) 1.8 (1.0–2.9) 8.4 (3.4–15.3) 3.4 (1.5–6.0)
 Household cats 25.0 (0.8–70.8) 5.0 (0.1–17.6) 15.8 (3.6–34.7) 14.52 (7.0–24.2) 60.0 (19.4–93.2) 31.6 (13.3–53.5)
 Stray catsc 56.7 (38.9–73.6) 66.7 (48.2–82.8) 56.7 (38.9–73.6) 66.7 (48.2–82.8) 56.7 (38.9–73.5) 66.7 (48.2–82.8)
 Foxesb 50.0 (9.4–90.6) 50.0 (9.4–90.6) 39.6 (26.4–53.6) 43.5 (24.4–63.6) 43.6 (35.3–52.1) 33.3 (22.1–45.6)
Faecal output (F), g/day       
 Dogse 147.7 (27.8–332.6) 209.6 (40.5–452.3) 232.9 (44.6–504.8) 225.9 (43.4–487.0) 201.1 (38.2–447.7) 259.6 (49.9–559.3)
 Household catsf 11.7 (1.9–27.0) 7.0 (2.3–14.9) 5.2 (1.3–12.2) 17.9 (9.0–30.8) 14.0 (3.7–29.4) 18.5 (9.0–32.4)
 Stray catsg 23.4 (12.1–39.5) 23.4 (12.1–39.5) 23.4 (12.1–39.5) 23.4 (12.1–39.5) 23.4 (12.1–39.5) 23.4 (12.1–39.5)
 Foxesg 95.0 (64.6–134.9) 95.0 (64.6–134.9) 95.0 (64.6–134.9) 95.0 (64.6–134.8) 95.0 (64.6–134.9) 95.0 (64.6–134.9)
Infection intensity (I), eggs/g faeces       
 Dogsh 341.2 (305–378) 163.7 (139–189) 341.2 (305–378) 163.7 (139–189) 341.2 (305–378) 163.7 (139–189)
 Household catsh 372.8 (335–411) 81.7 (64–100) 372.8 (335–411) 81.7 (64–100) 372.8 (335–411) 81.7 (64–100)
 Stray catsh 372.8 (335–441) 81.7 (64–100) 372.8 (335–441) 81.7 (64–100) 372.8 (335–441) 81.7 (64–100)
 Foxesh 157.0 (133–182) 366.0 (329–404) 157.0 (133–182) 366.0 (329–404) 157.0 (133–182) 366.0 (329–404)
  1. Estimated mean and 95 % confidence intervals of the posterior distribution of the host population density, prevalence of patent Toxocara infection, average daily faecal output released into the environment, and infection intensity for young adult (6–12 month-old) and adult (>12 month-old) dogs, household cats, stray cats and foxes in urban, intermediate and rural areas in the Netherlands
  2. aModelled deterministically as fixed single-point estimate, so no 95 % confidence interval is calculated (see Table 1). bDerived from postmortem examinations of the intestine instead of copromicroscopy. cGiven the lack of detailed data, it did not change over urbanization degrees. dAdjusted for the rate of displayed coprophagic behaviour (see Table 2). eAdjusted for the compliance of dog owners to faeces cleaning-up policies (see Table 2). fAdjusted for the rate of outdoor access (see Table 2). gDoes not change over age groups and urbanization degrees since all stray cats and foxes release their faeces into the environment, so adjustments for outdoor access and compliance to faeces cleaning-up policies do not take place. hDoes not change over urbanization degrees, but only over age groups, as it was considered as a parasite-related property of a given host, irrespective of the urbanization degree where that host live