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Fig. 2 | Parasites & Vectors

Fig. 2

From: Anopheles stephensi p38 MAPK signaling regulates innate immunity and bioenergetics during Plasmodium falciparum infection

Fig. 2

Phosphorylation of AsP38 MAPK increased in response to LPS in vitro and to P. falciparum infection in vivo. (a, c) Cell lysates from ASE cells treated with 1 μg/ml LPS were collected at the indicated time points post-treatment and levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK (pP38) were determined by western blotting. Graph in (a) represents average fold change ± SEMs of pP38 protein levels normalized to untreated controls, n = 3-4. GAPDH provided an assessment of protein loading. Pairwise comparisons of treatments versus controls at each time point were analysed by Student’s t-test, significant p-values are shown. (c) is a representative western blot. (b, d) Midgut cell lysates from 3-5 day old female A. stephensi mosquitoes fed uninfected or P. falciparum-infected blood were collected at 30 min and 3 h post feeding and levels of pP38 were determined by western blotting. Graph in (b) represents average fold change ± SEMs of pP38 protein levels normalized to uninfected blood fed controls, n = 3. Dotted line represents pP38 levels in uninfected blood fed controls. Pairwise comparisons of treatments versus controls at each time point were analysed by Student’s t-test, significant p-values relative to control are shown. (d) is a representative western blot

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