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Table 5 Insecticide diagnostic concentrations expressed in % of active ingredient of different populations of Culicoides to different active ingredients

From: How do species, population and active ingredient influence insecticide susceptibility in Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) of veterinary importance?

Active ingredient Population (origin)
C. nubeculosus C. obsoletus   C. imicola    
(Cirad, FR) (Corrèze, FR) (Mallorca, ES) (Corsica, FR) (Catalonia, ES) (Rufisque, SEN) (Pretoria,SA)
Pyrethroids        
 Deltamethrin 0.03 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.03
 Alpha-cypermethrin 0.61 0.21   0.03    
 Permethrin 2.65 0.48 1.12 0.77 1.55 0.20  
Organophosphates        
 Chlorpyrifos-methyl 0.82 0.74   1.36    
 Phoxim 1.05 1.16   1.22    
 Diazinon 1.26 2.29   2.54    
  1. Most of diagnostic concentrations likely overestimated due to classical dose/response analysis (see discussion)
  2. FR France, ES Spain, SEN Senegal, SA South Africa