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Table 2 World Health Organisation (WHO) Cone Bioassays: Mean estimated application rate of active ingredients in mg/cm2 of selected insecticide/repellent-based treatments, range between treatment batches shown in parenthesis

From: Can insecticide-treated netting provide protection for Equids from Culicoides biting midges in the United Kingdom?

Treatment Active Ingredient (mg/cm2)
Citriodiol Citronella Oil Cypermethrin DEET Permethrin Pyrethrins Tetramethrin
Aa - - - - - 2.8 (2.2–3.3) -
B - - 1.2 (1.1–1.4) - - - -
C - - - - 1.2 (1.1–1.4) - 0.5 (0.4–0.6)
D - - 1.0 (0.9–1.1) - - - -
E - - 0.1 (0.1–0.1) - - - -
Fa - - 2.7 (2.0–3.0) - - 3.1 (2.3–3.4) -
Ga - - - - 6.8 (6.6–7.2) 1.3 (1.3–1.4) -
H - 22.1 (19.0–27.5) - - - - -
I - - - 292.2 (215.1–366.6) - - -
J 12.5 (10.6–14.7) - - - - - -
  1. − not an active ingredient in treatment
  2. aalso contains Piperonylbutoxide [5-[2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethoxymethyl]-6-propyl-1-3-benzodioxole as a synergist) (Treatments K and L untreated negative controls