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Table 2 Research questions to address human infection and transmission to validate and optimize existing prototype markers for detection of past exposure, putatively highly infectious individuals and progressors to active VL

From: Understanding the transmission dynamics of Leishmania donovani to provide robust evidence for interventions to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India

• What is the value of new prototype point of care (POC) tests (IgG1 RDT; urinary antigen detection) in comparison with existing quantitative antibody tests (and qPCR) to detect those healthy but infected individuals who are likely to progress to clinical VL (progressors)?  
• What is the value of IGRA as an alternative to LST (which is not currently allowed for use in India) for documenting the presence of cellular immunity (exposed but not susceptible) at population level?  
• What is the validity of sand fly saliva antibody detection for detecting past exposure?  
• Are progressors to VL a significant source of infection to sand flies as compared to non-progressors?