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Table 3 Actual and estimated species richness for 18 fixed-streams along an altitudinal gradient in Peninsular Malaysia. Numbers in parentheses indicate sampling efficiencya

From: Distribution pattern of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) assemblages along an altitudinal gradient in Peninsular Malaysia

Altitudes Actual species Mean richness (± SE) Chao estimates First Order Jackknife
All 35 3.15 ± 2.00 41.3 ± 2.08 (84.7) 39.8 ± 1.95 (87.9)
Low altitude
E1 13 2.52 ± 0.35 13.7 ± 1.10 (94.8) 16.8 ± 1.78 (77.4)
E2 15 3.43 ± 0.31 24.0 ± 7.69 (62.5) 21.7 ± 3.22 (69.1)
E3 15 3.50 ± 0.28 23.0 ± 8.31 (65.2) 19.8 ± 1.90 (75.7)
E4 8 3.21 ± 0.41 8.4 ± 0.95 (95.1) 8.95 ± 0.96 (89.4)
E5 12 4.30 ± 0.52 12.1 ± 0.92 (99.2) 12.9 ± 0.96 (93.0)
E6 14 4.64 ± 0.48 16.0 ± 3.01 (87.5) 16.9 ± 1.59 (82.8)
Middle altitude
E7 16 5.35 ± 0.67 18.0 ± 3.01 (88.8) 17.9 ± 1.33 (89.4)
E8 12 2.33 ± 0.40 16.1 ± 11.5 (74.5) 17.7 ± 2.07 (67.8)
E9 14 2.65 ± 0.33 20.3 ± 5.89 (68.9) 18.8 ± 1.95 (74.5)
E10 5 2.67 ± 0.67 7.0 ± 3.01 (71.4) 7.8 ± 2.87 (64.1)
E11 11 3.21 ± 0.32 13.6 ± 7.78 (80.9) 13.9 ± 1.59 (79.1)
High altitude
E12 11 3.44 ± 0.35 13.4 ± 0.60 (82.1) 12.9 ± 1.32 (85.2)
E13 16 3.34 ± 0.43 22.3 ± 5.89 (71.7) 20.8 ± 2.40 (76.9)
E14 13 3.36 ± 0.50 16.5 ± 5.66 (78.8) 17.8 ± 2.39 (73.0)
E15 13 2.83 ± 0.28 14.7 ± 6.17 (88.4) 20.7 ± 3.29 (62.8)
E16 4 1.69 ± 0.15 4.1 ± 0.37 (97.5) 4.09 ± 0.09 (97.8)
E17 7 1.29 ± 0.18 11.0 ± 1.03 (63.6) 11.2 ± 3.83 (62.5)
E18 10 1.76 ± 0.42 14.2 ± 6.82 (70.4) 16.1 ± 1.95 (62.1)
  1. aSampling efficiency was calculated by dividing the number of actual species sampled by the number of estimated species [36]