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Table 1 Protection levels (% of reduction, R) in worm recovery (total counts, females and males), hepatic damage extension (mm2/100 mm2) and number of eggs per gram (EPG) in the tissues in vaccinated BALB/c mice using natural and recombinant FABP (nFh12, rFh15 or rFh15b) formulated with the adjuvant adaptation (ADAD) vaccination system with the natural immunomodulator PAL or the synthetic AA0029. Data presented as the mean ± standard error of the mean. ANOVA F- and P-values, and post-hoc Tukey’s honest significance test P values of significant increases are included

From: Protection against Schistosoma mansoni infection using a Fasciola hepatica-derived fatty acid binding protein from different delivery systems

Groups Total worms R Females R Males R Hepatic lesion R EPG in liver R EPG intestine R
  (mean ± SEM) (%) (mean ± SEM) (%) (mean ± SEM) (%) (mean ± SEM) (%) (mean ± SEM) (%) (mean ± SEM) (%)
Experiment 1
Infected 36.3 ± 4.9 19.7 ± 2.9 16.6 ± 2.0 64.1 ± 7.1 17,432 ± 3,586 14,812 ± 3,934
PAL+Qs 23.4 ± 2.5 36 12.4 ± 1.4 37 11.1 ± 1.0 33 74.4 ± 6.4 NR 16,551 ± 2,620 5 17,367 ± 2,277 NR
PAL+Qs+nFh12 6.0 ± 1.7 P < 0.001a 83 3.6 ± 1.0 P < 0.001a 82 2.1 ± 0.8 P < 0.001a 87 9.4 ± 3.0 P < 0.001a 85 3,089 ± 1,001 P = 0.001a 82 1,186 ± 523 P < 0.001a 92
ANOVA F (2,24) = 23.39 P < 0.001   F (2,24) = 18.49 P < 0.001   F (2,24) = 30.13 P < 0.001   F (2,24) = 39.41 P < 0.001   F (2,24) = 10.27 P < 0.001   F (3,32) = 16.31 P < 0.001  
Experiment 2
Infected 49.0 ± 6.1 24.0 ± 7.3 25.0 ± 8.8 61.2 ± 8.3 18,008 ± 2,362 - 18,197 ± 2,079
PAL+Qs 31.6 ± 3.4 35 18.6 ± 2.1 22 13.5 ± 1.2 46 71.0 ± 6.2 NR 17,098 ± 2,706 5 21,700 ± 2,968 NR
PAL+Qs+rFh15 21.8 ± 2.5 P = 0.006a 56 9.0 ± 1.2 P < 0.001a 63 12.8 ± 1.5 P < 0.001a 49 18.7 ± 2.2 P < 0.001a 69 14,247 ± 668 21 12,724 ± 488 30
ANOVA F (2,24) = 9.04 P < 0.001   F (2,24) = 13.80 P < 0.001   F (2,24) = 9.93 P < 0.001   F (2,24) = 18.37 P < 0.001      
Experiment 3
Infected 34.5 ± 6.9 18.0 ± 3.6 16.5 ± 3.4 61.8 ± 14.4 9,986 ± 2,360 7,748 ± 1,315
AA0029+Qs 42.5 ± 8.0 NR 20.0 ± 4.4 NR 22.5 ± 3.9 NR 77.0 ± 19.0 NR 13,242 ± 1,597 NR 8,084 ± 775 NR
AA0029+Qs+rFh15 12.5 ± 3.8 P = 0.046a 64 5.5 ± 2.0 P = 0.011a 69 7.0 ± 2.0 P = 0.041a 58 20.6 ± 14.0 P = 0.049a 67 3,872 ± 1,814 P = 0.024a 61 1,800 ± 730 P = 0.001a 77
AA0029+Qs+rFh15b 25.1 ± 7.8 27 10.1 ± 3.2 P = 0.021a 44 15.0 ± 4.8 9 15.2 ± 7.1 P = 0.048a 75 4,692 ± 1,181 P = 0.035a 53 3,098 ± 800 P = 0.001a 60
ANOVA F (3,32) = 3.09 P = 0.047   F (3,32) = 3.75 P = 0.026   F (3,32) = 2.97 P = 0.048   F (3,32) = 4.05 P = 0.007   F (3,32) = 4.25 P = 0.003   F (3,32) = 11.61 P < 0.001  
  1. NR no-reduction: aSignificant differences in comparison with infected controls