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Table 2 Distribution of Ixodes scapularis organisms in eastern North America, from 78 studies reviewed (2000–2015)

From: Human pathogens associated with the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis: a systematic review

Organism Jurisdiction where organism detected (Canadian provinces and US states)a
Tick-borne organisms  
 Alphaproteobacteria  
  Anaplasmataceae  
  Anaplasma phagocytophilum b,c Canada: AB, MB, NB, NL, NS, ON, PE, QC, SK; US: CT, DE, GA, IL, IN, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NC, ND, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, WI
  Ehrlichia chaffeensis b US: NY
  Ehrlichia ewingii b US: TN
  Ehrlichia Panola Mountain sp.b US: TN
  Ehrlichia muris-like sp. (or E. sp. nr. muris)b US: MN, WI
 Bartonellaceae  
  Bartonella henselae b US: NJ, NY, PA
  Unidentified/uncharacterized   Bartonella spp. US: MD, NJ, PA
 Rickettsiaceae  
  Candidatus Rickettsia cooleyi   (or cooleyi-like)d US: FL, GA, TN, TX
  Candidatus Rickettsia IRS4 US: MA
  Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii US: TN
  Rickettsia buchneri d US: MN
  Rickettsia massiliae/Rickettsia sp.   Bar 29 US: NC
  Rickettsia parkeri b US: LA
  Rickettsia peacockii d US: TX
  Rickettsia endosymbiont of   Ixodes scapularis d US: CT, IN, LA, MA, ME, NY, PA, TN, WI
  Rickettsia sp. Is-I US: GA
  Rickettsia sp. TR-39 US: FL, GA
  Unidentified/uncharacterized   Rickettsia spp. US: MD, NC, TN
  Wolbachia sp. US: CT
Spirochaetes  
 Spirochaetaceae  
  Borrelia andersonii b US: MI
  Borrelia bissettii b US: LA
  Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.b Canada: AB, MB, NB, NS, NL, ON, PE, QC; US: AR, CT, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NC, ND, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, SC, TX, VA, WI
  Borrelia kurtenbachii b Canada: NS; US: NY
  Borrelia lonestari b US: AR, MA, NY
  Borrelia miyamotoi b Canada: AB, MB, NB, NS, ON, PE, QC; US: CT, IA, IL, IN, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VA, WI
  Unidentified/uncharacterized   Borrelia sp. US: NY
Piroplasmida  
 Babesiidae  
  Babesia microti b US: CT, MA, MD, ME, MN, NH, NJ, NY, PA, WI
  Babesia odocoilei US: IN, IL, ME, MI, MS, PA, TN, WI
 Theileriidae  
  Theileria cervi US: TN
Viruses  
 Bunyaviridae  
  Blacklegged tick phlebovirus US: NY
  South Bay virus US: NY
 Flaviviridae  
  Deer tick virus (POWV lineage II)b US: CT, MA, NY, RI, WI
  Powassan virus (POWV lineage I)b US: NY
  POWV (not subtyped)b US: NY
 Reoviridae  
  St. Croix River viruse US: WI
 Other  
  Ixodes scapularis mononegaviralese US: NY
Non-vector-borne, gut/surface orgnaisms  
Alphaproteobacteria  
 Bradyrhizobiaceae  
  Afipia broomeae f US: NY
  Afipia felis f US: CT
 Caulobacteraceae  
  Uncultured bacterium 1 US: CT
  Uncultured bacterium 2 US: CT
 Methylobacteriaceae  
  Methylobacterium mesophilicum f US: CT
  Methylobacterium sp. strain G296-5 US: CT
  Uncultured bacterium 3 US: CT
 Sphingomonadaceae  
  Sphingomonas elodea f US: CT
  Sphingomonas melonis f US: CT
  Sphingomonas sp. US: CT
  Sphingomonas sp. strain BF2 US: CT
  Sphingomonas sp. AV069 US: CT
  Sphingopyxis alaskensis US: CT
  Sphingobacterium sp. US: NY
Betaproteobacteria  
 Burkholderiaceae  
  Burkholderia sp. US: CT
  Ralstonia mannitolilytica f US: NY
 Comamonadaceae  
  Delftia acidovorans f US: CT
  Delftia acidovorans WDL34f US: CT
  Uncultured bacterium 4 US: CT
  Uncultured bacterium 5 US: CT
Gammaproteobacteria  
 Enterobacteriaceae  
  Enterobacter asburiae f US: NY
  Escherichia coli f US: CT
  Photorhabdus sp. US: NY
  Raoultella sp. US: NY
  Shigella sp. US: NY
  Uncultured gamma protebacterium US: NY
  Acinetobacter sp. strain phenon 4 US: CT
  Acinetobacter sp. 1 US: CT
  Acinetobacter sp. 2 US: NY
 Pseudomonadaceae  
  Pseudomonas fluorescens f US: NY
  Pseudomonas sp. 1 US: NY
  Pseudomonas sp. 2 US: NY
  Pseudomonas sp. 3 US: NY
  Symbiont cf. Pseudomonas US: NY
 Xanthomonadaceae  
  Stenotrophomonas maltophilia f US: CT
  Uncultured Stenotrophomonas sp. US: NY
  Stenotrophomonas sp. US: NY
Actinobacteria  
 Mycobacteriaceae  
  Mycobacterium manitobense f US: CT
 Nocardiaceae  
  Rhodococcus erythropolis   strain NVIf US: CT
  Rhodococcus sp. US: NY
  Williamsia sp. US: NY
 Propionibacteriaceae  
  Propionibacterium acnes f US: CT
Firmicutes  
 Bacillaceae  
  Bacillus sp. US: CT
 Streptococcaceae  
  Uncultured Streptococcus sp. US: CT
 Unclassified Bacteria  
 Uncultured bacterium 6 US: CT
 Uncultured bacterium 7 US: CT
 Uncultured bacterium 8 US: CT
 Uncultured bacterium 9 US: CT
 Uncultured bacterium 10 US: CT
 Uncultured bacterium 11 US: CT
 Uncultured bacterium 12 US: CT
 Uncultured bacterium 13 US: CT
 Plastid clone US: CT
 Uncultured bacterium 14 US: NY
 Uncultured/unidentified bacterium US: NY
  1. aCanada: AB, Alberta; MB, Manitoba; NB, New Brunswick; NL, Newfoundland; NS, Nova Scotia; ON, Ontario; PE, Prince Edward Island; SK, Saskatchewan; QC, Quebec. US: AR, Arkansas; CT, Connecticut; DE, Delaware; FL, Florida; GA, Georgia; IL, Illinois; IN, Indiana; IA, Iowa; LA, Louisiana; ME, Maine; MD, Maryland; MA, Massachusetts; MI, Michigan; MN, Minnesota; MS, Mississippi; NH, New Hampshire; NJ, New Jersey; NY, New York; NC, North Carolina; ND, North Dakota; PA, Pennsylvania; RI, Rhode Island; SC, South Carolina; TN, Tennessee; TX, Texas; VT, Vermont; VA, Virginia; WI, Wisconsin
  2. bKnown or putative human pathogen, B. andersoni [131]; B. bissettii [132]; B. kurtenbachii [133]; B. lonestari [134]; R. parkeri [91]
  3. cBoth the Ap-ha strain (human disease strain) and the Ap-variant-1 strain were pooled during data extraction, since not all studies distinguished between the two
  4. dKnown or putative endosymbiont of Ix. scapularis
  5. eLikely a viral genome integrated into I. scapularis genome [135, 136]
  6. fHuman pathogen, but likely not transmitted by blacklegged ticks, gut organisms