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Table 2 Pathogens detected in Dermacentor reticulatus

From: Dermacentor reticulatus: a vector on the rise

Status Pathogen Disease Region Relevance Note References
Vector Omsk haemorrhagic fever virus Omsk haemorrhagic fever Western Siberia PH   [207]
Tick-borne encephalitis virus Tick-borne encephalitis Eurasia PH   [80, 149, 228, 299]
Rickettsia raoultii TIBOLA/DEBONEL Eurasia PH   [15, 62, 64, 107, 126, 141, 159, 235, 238, 245, 247249, 300303]
Rickettsia slovaca TIBOLA/DEBONEL Eurasia PH   [64, 238, 245, 300, 304]
Anaplasma marginale Bovine anaplasmosis France VET Disseminated infection and mechanical (surgery) calf to calf transmission [104, 194, 196]
Babesia canis Canine babesiosis Eurasia VET   [69, 112, 123, 144, 180, 300, 305]
Babesia caballi Equine babesiosis Southern Europe VET   [69]
Theileria equi Equine theileriosis Eurasia VET   [188, 306, 307]
Carrier: found in questing or fed ticks or used in experimental infection studies (with unknown vector role) Kemerovo virus Kemerovo tick fever Western Siberia PH   [148]
Bluetongue virus (BTV-8) Bluetongue disease n.a. PH Disseminated infection but no transstadial or transovarial infection [308]
Palma virus ? n.a. ? transmission by co-feeding on laboratory mice [309]
Murid herpesvirus 4 Not known Slovakia ?   [310]
Rickettsia helvetica Aneruptive fever, endocarditis Eurasia PH   [115, 141, 250]
Rickettsia sibirica sibirica Siberian tick typhus Asia PH   [311, 312]
Anaplasma phagocytophilum Human, canine and equine granulocytic anaplasmosis Eurasia PH + VET   [104, 144, 247, 313, 314]
Borrelia burgdorferi (s.s.) Lyme borreliosis Eurasia PH   [141]
Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) Lyme borreliosis Eurasia PH   [104, 107, 141, 315, 316]
Borrelia afzelii Lyme borreliosis Eurasia PH Also detected in engorged larvae removed from uninfected mice [15, 141, 206]
Borrelia valaisiana Lyme borreliosis Eurasia PH   [141]
Borrelia garinii Lyme borreliosis Eurasia PH   [158]
Coxiella burneii Q-fever Eurasia PH   [104, 317]
Francisella tularensis ssp. holarctica Tularemia Eurasia PH   [200, 318, 319]
Francisella philomiragia Opportunistic human pathogen, fish pathogen Eurasia PH + VET Not tick-transmitted [104]
Francisella-like organisms Not known Eurasia   [105, 150, 320324]
Bartonella henselae Cat scratch disease Eurasia PH   [141, 158]
Bartonella quintana Five-days fever Eurasia PH   [158]
Bartonella sp. ? n.a. ?   [104]
Gordonia sputi Endocarditis, mediastinitis Europe PH In immunosuppressed individuals, not tick-transmitted [325, 326]
Microbacterium floriorum ? Europe ? In immunosuppressed individuals, not tick-transmitted [325]
Arthrobacter oxydans ? Europe ? Not tick-transmitted [325]
Kocuria kristinae Endocarditis, peritonitis Europe PH Not tick-transmitted [325]
Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens Septic arthritis Europe PH Not tick-transmitted [325]
Salmonella typhimurium Salmonellosis Eurasia PH Not tick-transmitted but transovarially transmitted [327, 328]
Babesia microti Human babesiosis Eurasia PH   [200, 305]
Babesia divergens Bovine babesiosis, Redwater fever Spain PH + VET   [307, 329]
  Human babesiosis Europe    
Babesia bigemina Texas fever Spain VET   [307]
Theileria sp. OT1 Not known Spain ?   [307]
Hepatozoon canis Canine hepatozoonosis Worldwide VET In engorged nymphs from infected dogs [298]
Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasmosis Worldwide PH + VET Not tick-transmitted [202]
Nosema slovaca Slovakia, Hungary   [330]
  1. Abbreviations: PH public health; VET. veterinary; n.a. not applicable