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Table 3 Univariate analysis of factors associated with polyparasitism among Orang Asli and Malay children in Terengganu (n = 340)

From: A tale of two communities: intestinal polyparasitism among Orang Asli and Malay communities in rural Terengganu, Malaysia

Variable Orang Asli    Malay   
No. examined % infected OR (95 % CI) P-value No. examined % infected OR (95 % CI) P-value
Age
 School-age (≥ 6 years) 98 71.4 1.40 (0.72–2.71) 0.325 130 13.8 0.87 (0.34–2.25) 0.778
 Preschool (< 6 years) 67 64.2 1   45 15.6 1  
Gender
 Boys 88 73.9 1.71 (0.88–3.31) 0.112 76 19.7 2.19 (0.92–5.19) 0.071
 Girls 77 62.3 1   99 10.1 1  
Family size
  ≥ 7 members (large) 58 81.0 2.65 (1.24–5.70) 0.011* 89 18.0 1.88 (0.78–4.51) 0.156
  < 7 members 107 61.7 1   86 10.5 1  
Father’s educational level
 Non educated 84 71.4 1.32 (0.68–2.55) 0.407 4 25.0 2.04 (0.21–20.45) 0.536
 Educated (≥ 6 years) 81 65.4 1   171 14.0 1  
Mother’s educational level
 Non educated 69 79.7 2.57 (1.26–5.26) 0.009* 3 33.3 3.08 (0.27–35.34) 0.342
 Educated (≥ 6 years) 96 60.4 1   172 14.0 1  
Father’s employment status
 Not working 126 71.4 1.74 (0.83–3.67) 0.143 40 17.5 1.38 (0.53–3.58) 0.508
 Working 39 59.0 1   135 13.3 1  
Mother’s employment status
 Not working 136 69.1 1.18 (0.51–2.75) 0.705 134 10.4 0.32 (0.13–0.77) 0.009*
 Working 29 65.5 1   41 26.8 1  
Household monthly income
  < RM 500 106 68.9 1.05 (0.53–2.08) 0.887 34 26.5 2.81 (1.12–7.08) 0.024*
  ≥ RM 500 59 67.8 1   141 11.3 1  
Presence of toilet in house
 No 129 72.9 2.40 (1.12–5.14) 0.022* 0 0 na na
 Yes 36 52.8 1   175 14.3 1  
Source of drinking water
 Unsafe source (river, rain) 74 83.8 4.05 (1.93–8.53) < 0.001* 0 0 na na
 Safe source (pipe) 91 56.0 1   175 14.3 1  
Presence of domestic animals
 Yes 109 77.1 3.13 (1.57–6.23) 0.001* 117 18.8 4.25 (1.22–14.84) 0.015*
 No 56 51.8    58 5.2 1  
Washing hands before eating
 No 56 71.4 1.23 (0.61–2.49) 0.560 22 13.6 0.94 (0.26–3.45) 0.926
 Yes 109 67.0 1   153 14.4 1  
Washing hands after defecation
 No 63 63.5 0.69 (0.35–1.35) 0.278 15 20.0 1.57 (0.41–6.01) 0.508
 Yes 102 71.6 1   160 13.8 1  
Washing hands after playing with soil
 No 71 80.3 2.76 (1.35–5.65) 0.005* 39 15.4 1.12 (0.41–3.03) 0.824
 Yes 94 59.6 1   136 14.0 1  
Indiscriminate defecation
 Yes 135 71.9 2.23 (1.01–5.02) 0.041* 0 0 na na
 No 30 53.3 1   175 14.3 1  
Eating soil habit (geophagy)
 Yes 29 65.5 0.85 (0.36–1.98) 0.705 11 18.2 1.36 (0.23–6.71) 0.703
 No 136 69.1 1   164 14.0 1  
Garbage disposal
 Indiscriminately 57 66.7 0.88 (0.44–1.75) 0.715 23 17.4 1.31 (0.41–4.24) 0.648
 Collected 108 69.4 1   152 13.8 1  
Cutting nails periodically
 No 52 69.2 1.05 (0.52–2.14) 0.889 25 12.0 0.79 (0.22–2.88) 0.724
 Yes 113 68.1 1   150 14.7 1  
Wearing shoes when go outside
 No 100 80.0 3.88 (1.95–7.74) < 0.001* 1 0 na na
 Yes 65 50.8 1   174 14.4 1  
Washing fruits before eating
 No 101 71.3 1.39 (0.71–2.72) 0.330 19 15.8 1.14 (0.31–4.25) 0.843
 Yes 64 64.1 1   156 14.1 1  
Washing vegetables before eating
 No 77 77.9 2.33 (1.17–4.63) 0.015* 23 13.0 0.89 (0.24–3.24) 0.855
 Yes 88 60.2 1   152 14.5 1  
Boiling/filtering water before drinking
 No 131 70.2 1.46 (0.67–3.21) 0.344 55 16.4 1.27 (0.52–3.09) 0.595
 Yes 34 61.8 1   120 13.3 1  
  1. Abbreviations: RM Malaysian Ringgit; (US$ 1 = RM 3.2); OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, na not applicable
  2. *Significant association (P < 0.05)