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Table 6 Seropositivity for CVBD agents according to the epidemiological variables analysed

From: Countrywide serological evaluation of canine prevalence for Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), Dirofilaria immitis and Ehrlichia canis in Mexico

Epidemiological variable (n) Total population seropositivity (%)
Dogs infected (%) A Bb Di Ec Dogs co-infected (%)
Gender P = 0.205 P = 0.871 P = 0.886 P = 0.772 P = 0.291 P = 0.565
 Male (901) 343 (38.07) 89 (9.88) 2 (0.22) 49 (5.44) 288 (31.96) 77 (8.55)
 Female (781) 274 (35.08) 79 (10.11) 2 (0.26) 40 (5.12) 231 (29.58) 73 (9.35)
Age P = 0.011 P = 0.958 P = 0.647 P = 0.096 P = 0.014 P = 0.379
 < 1 year (82) 19 (23.17) 8 (9.76) 0 (0) 1 (1.22) 15 (18.29) 5 (6.09)
 ≥ 1 year (1570) 581 (37.01) 156 (9.94) 4 (0.25) 85 (5.41) 489 (31.14) 140 (8.92)
Size P < 0.0001 P = 0.606 P = 0.542 P = 0.001 P = 0.047 P < 0.0001
 Small (631) 174 (27.58) 44 (6.97) 0 (0) 13 (2.06) 146 (23.14) 27 (4.28)
 Medium (226) 98 (43.36) 25 (11.06) 1 (0.44) 17 (7.52) 80 (35.39) 23 (10.18)
 Large (522) 208 (39.85) 55 (10.54) 2 (0.38) 36 (6.89) 172 (32.95) 51 (9.77)
Lifestyle P < 0.0001 P = 0.001 P = 0.214 P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001
 Indoors (447) 106 (23.71) 27 (6.04) 0 (0) 8 (1.79) 88 (19.69) 17 (3.80)
 Outdoors (1159) 487 (42.02) 133 (11.47) 4 (0.34) 81 (6.99) 407 (35.12) 125 (10.78)
Tick contact P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001 P = 0.297 P = 0.002 P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001
 Yes (1258) 545 (43.32) 156 (12.40) 4 (0.32) 80 (6.36) 458 (36.40) 141 (11.21)
 No (341) 33 (9.68) 4 (1.17) 0 (0.00) 7 (2.05) 25 (7.33) 3 (0.88)
TTI prevention P < 0.0001 P = 0.188 P = 0.069 P = 0.429 P < 0.0001 P = 0.033
 Yes (85) 50 (58.82) 12 (14.12) 1 (1.18) 3 (3.53) 49 (57.65) 13 (15.29)
 No (1593) 567 (35.59) 155 (9.73) 3 (0.19) 88 (5.52) 468 (29.38) 136 (8.54)
MTI prevention P = 0.180 P = 0.354 P = 0.070 P = 0.484 P = 0.243 P = 0.085
 Yes (85) 37 (43.53) 11 (12.94) 1 (1.18) 6 (7.06) 31 (36.47) 12 (14.12)
 No (1585) 576 (36.34) 156 (9.84) 3 (0.19) 84 (5.29) 483 (30.47) 137 (8.64)
Clinical signs P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001 P = 0.022 P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001
 Yes (722) 384 (53.18) 106 (14.68) 4 (0.55) 57 (7.89) 333 (46.12) 108 (14.96)
 No (943) 227 (24.07) 58 (6.15) 0 (0) 31 (3.29) 182 (19.3) 39 (4.13)
Travel history P = 0.631 P = 0.680 P = 0.124 P = 0.453 P = 0.572 P = 0.742
 Yes (331) 118 (35.65) 35 (10.57) 2 (0.60) 15 (4.53) 98 (29.61) 31 (9.36)
 No (1365) 506 (37.07) 134 (9.82) 2 (0.15) 76 (5.57) 426 (31.21) 120 (8.79)
  1. Abbreviations: A Anaplasma spp., Bb B. burgdorferi (sensu lato), Di D. immitis, Ec E. canis, TTI tick-transmitted infections; MTI mosquito-transmitted infections