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Table 1 African saurian malaria species across the families Agamidae, Chamaeleonidae, Cordylidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Opluridae and Scincidae

From: A new lizard malaria parasite Plasmodium intabazwe n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) in the Afromontane Pseudocordylus melanotus (Sauria: Cordylidae) with a review of African saurian malaria parasites

Lizard host species by family Plasmodiid species Original host localities Intracellular meront dimensions (L × W in μm);
[LW in μm2];
Number of merozoites
Intracellular gametocyte dimensions (L × W in μm);
[LW in μm2]
Gametocyte morphology Effects of gametocytes on host cell Reference
Agamidae
Agama agama [syn. Agama colonorum (Linnaeus, 1758)]
Other hosts: Agama cyanogaster (Southgate, 1970); Agama mossambica (Peters, 1854)
Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) giganteum Theiler, 1930 Gbanga, Liberia (9–18 × 4–11)
[52–165]
28−74
(9–22 × 4–10)
[45–145]
Round to elongate or bulky   [3, 2729]
Agama agama
Other hosts: Acanthocercus atricollis (Smith, 1849);
Agama hispida aculeata (Kaup, 1827)
Plasmodium (Lacertamoeba) agamae (Wenyon, 1909) Bahr-El-Ghazal Province, Sudan (4–11 × 3–6)
[12–55]
4−15
(6–19 × 3–8)
[33–105]
  Hypotrophy
Distortion of host cells
Displacement and occasional distortion of nuclei
[3, 5, 2732]
Agama mossambica Plasmodium (Lacertamoeba) mossambica Telford, 2009 Morogoro Region, Tanzania (5–15 × 3–7)
[20–75]
6−34
(6–17 × 3–8)
[36–84]
Elongate Distortion of host cells
Displacement and occasional distortion of nuclei
Displacement of nuclei
[6]
Agama mossambica Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) giganteum Theiler, 1930 Gbanga,
Liberia
(9–18 × 4–11)
[52–165]
28−74
(9–22 × 4–10)
[45–145]
Dimorphic Hypertrophy
Distortion and occasional enlargement of host cell
[27]
Chamaeleonidae
Chamaeleo brevicornis Günther, 1879
Other host: Calumma parsoni crucifer (Cuvier, 1824)
Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) robinsoni (Brygoo, 1962) Telford & Landau, 1987 Moramanga Subprefecture,
Madagascar
(11–23 × 7–11)
[90–184]
40−74
(9–20 × 5–13)
[72–221]
Oval to elongate or bulky Hypertrophy
Displacement and distortion of nuclei
[33]
Chamaeleo brevicornis Plasmodium (Lacertamoeba) brygooi Telford & Landau, 1987 Périnet, Madagascar (6–9 × 5–8)
[36–64]
10−16
(9–15 × 5–10)
[66–126]
Oval or elongate Hypertrophy
Distortion of cell
Displacement and distortion of nuclei
[33]
Kinyongia fischeri (Reichenow, 1887) Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) acuminatum Pringle, 1960 Tanga Region,
Tanzania




  Displacement of nuclei [34]
Kinyongia fischeri Plasmodium (Lacertamoeba) fischeri Ball & Pringle, 1965 Tanga Region, Tanzania (9 × 6)
[50]
21−25
(8–11 × 5–8)
[41–87]
Oblong to elongate Distortion of host cell
Displacement of nuclei
[35]
Kinyongia oxyrhina (Klaver & Böhme, 1988) Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) michikoa Telford, 1988 Kilombero district, Tanzania (6–15 × 4–8)
[28–78]
12−32
(6–14 × 4–8)
[36–80]
Elongate Hypotrophy [36]
Kinyongia oxyrhina Plasmodium (Lacertamoeba) gologoloense Telford, 1988 Morogoro Region, Tanzania (5–7 × 4–6)
[20–42]
6−14
(5–11 × 4–6)
[20–54]
Ovoid or round Displacement of nuclei [36]
Trioceros werneri (Tornier, 1899) Plasmodium (Lacertamoeba) tanzaniae Telford, 1988 Iringa Region, Tanzania (6–12 × 4–7)
[28–70]
8−22
(8–19 × 4–9)
[48–112]
Elongate Distortion of host cell
Displacement and occasional distortion of nuclei
[36]
Trioceros werneri Plasmodium (Lacertamoeba) arachniformis Telford, 1988 Iringa Region, Tanzania (4–12 × 2–7)
[12–49]
4−12
(6–17 × 3–8)
[30–75]
Elongate and thin Hypertrophy
Displacement and occasional distortion of nuclei
[36]
Triceros werneri Plasmodium (Lacertamoeba) uzungwiense Telford, 1988 Iringa Region, Tanzania (4–8 × 3–6)
[16–42]
4−12
(5–13 × 3–7)
[24–63]
Elongate Distortion of host cell
Displacement of nuclei
Enlargement of proerythrocyte nucleus
[36]
Cordylidae
Cordylus t. tropidosternum (Cope, 1869)
Other host: Cordylus vittifer (Reichenow, 1887)
Plasmodium (Carinamoeba) cordyli Telford, 1987 Tanga Region, Tanzania (4–7 × 3–6)
[12–36]
4−11
(5–8 × 4–7)
[12–28]
Round or ovoid Hypertrophy
Distortion of host cell
Distortion and displacement of nuclei
[6, 7]
Cordylus vittifer Plasmodium (Lacertamoeba) zonuriae (Pienaar, 1962) Elandsfontein, South Africa (this study) (undescribed); (7–17 × 4–9); (12 × 6.5)
[undescribed]; [36–120]; [32–117]
18–24; 12–28; 16−24
(8–8.4 × 4.2 − 4.6); (7–20 × 4–10); (13.5 × 7)
[undescribed]; [42–114]; [38–107]
Elongate Hypertrophy
Distortion and occasional enlargement of host cell
Distortion and displacement of nuclei
[5]
[6]
This study
Pseudocordylus melanotus (A. Smith, 1838) Plasmodium (Lacertamoeba) intabazwe n. sp. Platberg, Harrismith, South Africa (3.8−6.5 × 3.7−6.7)
[11–26.9]
8−14
(5.5 − 7.1 × 5.4 − 6.6)
[32–46]
Kidney Slight displacement of nuclei This study
Gekkonidae
Cnemaspis barbouri Perret, 1986 Plasmodium (Lacertamoeba) cnemaspi Telford, 1984 Morogoro Region, Tanzania (6–13 × 3–7)
[24–91]
8−24
(7–14 × 3–9)
[32–108]
Elongate (active)
Ovoid or rounded (chronic)
Hypertrophy
Distortion of host cell
Displacement of nuclei
[25]
Hemidactylus platycephalus Peters, 1854 Plasmodium (Lacertamoeba) uluguruense Telford, 1984 Morogoro Region, Tanzania (4–10 × 2–6)
[12–54]
4−12
(5–10 × 4–7)
[20–63]
Ovoid Hypertrophy
Distortion of host cell
Enlargement and displacement of nuclei
[25]
Lygodactylus capensis grotei Sternfeld, 1911 Haemocystidium lygodactyli Telford, 2005 University campus, Morogoro, Tanzania

(11–20 × 4–9.5)
[62–140]
  Distortion of host cell [37]
Lygodactylus capensis grotei Haemocystidium lygodactyli Telford, 2005 Morogoro region, Tanzania (5–10 × 9–16)
[20–70]
6−26
(8–25 × 5–11)

Elongate to oval Distortion of host cell [37]
Lygodactylus l. luteopicturatus Pasteur, 1964
Other host: Lygodactylus capensis grotei
Plasmodium (Lacertamoeba) loveridgei Telford, 1984 Morogoro Region, Tanzania (5–15 × 3–7)
[20–91]
6−26
(8–23 × 3–11)
[48–176]
Elongate, rarely rounded Hypotrophy
Distortion of host cell
Displacement of nuclei
[25]
Tarentola mauritanica deserti (Linnaeus, 1758)
Other host: Tarentola annularis (Geoffroy De St-Hilaire, 1827)
Haemocystidium tarentolae (Parrot, 1927) Paperna & Landau, 1991 El Kantara, Algeria

(8–18 × 4–12)

Elongate Slight hypertrophy and distortion of host cell
Lateral displacement of nuclei.
[38, 39]
Lacertidae
Holaspis guentheri Gray, 1863 Plasmodium (Lacertamoeba) holaspi Telford, 1986 Morogoro Region, Tanzania (5–13 × 4–7)
[25–66]
8−18
(6–18 × 3–8)
[28–98]
Elongate Distortion of host cell
Displacement and distortion of nuclei
[40]
Opluridae
Oplurus cuvieri Gray, 1831 Haemocystidium opluri Paperna & Landau, 1991 Baie de Loukaio, Madagascar

(12–19 × 3–12)

Oblong, oval Lateral hypertrophy
Displacement of nuclei
[39]
Scincidae
Trachylepis maculilabris (Gray, 1845) Plasmodium (Lacertamoeba) maculilabre Schwetz, 1931 Kisangani, Congo (10.0 × 6.9)
[69]
15−20
(7–13 × 5–8)
[42–91]
Ovoid to elongate Hypertrophy
Distortion of host cell
Displacement and occasional distortion of nuclei
[41]
Trachylepis quinquetaeniata (Lichtenstein, 1823)
Other hosts: Trachylepis maculilabris; Trachylepis striata (Peters, 1844)
Plasmodium (Carinamoeba) mabuiae (Wenyon, 1909), Telford, 1983 Bahr-El-Ghazal Province, Sudan (4–9 × 2–5
[10–30]
4−12
(5–11 × 3–5)
[18–44]
Elongate, rarely ovoid or round Hypertrophy
Occasional distortion of host cell
Displacement and occasional distortion of nuclei
[31, 42]
Trachylepis striata Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) heischi Garnham & Telford, 1984 Nairobi, Kenya (8–18 × 6–11)
[48–144]
20−65
(8–12 × 4–9)
[60–120]
Large, spindle-shaped Distortion of host cell
Lateral displacement of nuclei
[43]
Trachylepis striata
Other hosts: Trachylepis maculilabris; Trachylepis quinquetaeniata; Trachylepis varia (Peters, 1867)
Plasmodium (Lacertamoeba) pitmani Hoare, 1932 Lake Victoria, Uganda (4–11 × 3–7)
[12–66]
4−25
(5–16 × 4–9)
[25–91]

2.07
Ovoid Distortion of nuclei [44, 45]
  1. Abbreviations: L, length; W, width; LW = L × W; − Indicates dimensions not recorded