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Table 3 Top BLASTp scores of 18 immunity proteins detected in parasitized SGs of G. m. morsitans

From: A proteomics approach reveals molecular manipulators of distinct cellular processes in the salivary glands of Glossina m. morsitans in response to Trypanosoma b. brucei infections

UniProt ID Protein name Best Blast Match (description of homologies) Pathway Processes and roles in insect immunity
Best match (species name) % identity Accession No. Bits score E-value
Q8MX87 Transferrin Transferrin-1; (D. melanogaster) 63 AAF48831.1 827 0.0 Cell cycle regulation Pathogen-induced; iron metabolism; cellular homeostasis (prevents hydroxyl radical toxicity)
Q8IS37 Nitric oxide synthase Nitric oxide synthase; (A. pisum) 48 XP_001946209.1 137 1e-34 IMD Response to production of NO; inactivation of critical enzymes in energy metabolism and growth of parasites
H9TZT6b Stress-associated ER protein-2 Serine protease inhibitor-4; (D. melanogaster) 43 NP_724511.2 310 3e-86 Toll Pathogen recognition and apoptosis (activation of Toll pathway). Serpins are determinants for Plasmodium susceptibility and transmission in mosquitoes
Q2PQQ0 Serine protease inhibitor-4 52 382 1e-107
Q694B0 Thioredoxin peroxidase-3 Thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase-1; (An. gambiae) 73 XP_310704.3 295 6e-82 Humoral response Thioredoxin redox system provides primary defence lines in insects (oxidative stress); increase in oxidative stress limits parasite maturation; oxidative stress plays important roles in refractoriness of tsetse to trypanosome infection
D3TN04 Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase 74 298 1e-82
Q694A5 Thioredoxin peroxidase-1 Thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase-2; (An. gambiae) 76 XP_308081.2 315 4e-88
Q694A6 Thioredoxin peroxidase-2 Thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase-3; (An. gambiae) 73 XP_308336.4 341 1e-95
D3TRY4b Cathepsin B-like cysteine protease Cathepsin L; (D. melanogaster) 24 AAF51924.1 59 2e-10 Cellular response Upregulated in immune-stimulated Drosophila and G. m. morsitans (phagocytosis-mediated immunity)
D3TPP1a, b Downstream of receptor kinase Plenty of SH3-domain protein (POSH); (D. melanogaster) 31 NP_523776.1 89.7 7e-08 Toll; IMD; signalling DrKs are important downstream regulator of tumour necrosis factor/ c-Jun N-terminal kinase (TNF/JNK) signaling. JNK activation and Relish induction are delayed and sustained in POSH-deficient flies
D3TQS8a, b Integrin-β No hits found      Cellular response Tetraspanins regulate integrin activity; provides scaffold for phagocytosis-mediated insect immunity
D3TMA1a, b Tetraspanin 42Ed No hits found     
D3TMK2b Ras-related small GTPase rho type Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate-1; (D. melanogaster) 70 NP_476950.1 271 9e-75 Cell cycle regulation Rac/Rab GTPases are required for proper encapsulation (phagocytosis-mediated immunity); Rac1/2 GTPases are necessary for immune surveillance against pathogens and parasites in Drosophila
D3TMD3 Rab protein-14 (Rab-14) 27 67.8 2e-13
D3TRT5 Rab protein-5 (Rab-5) 25 60.1 5e-11
D3TSA8 Rab protein-7 (Rab-7) Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate-2; (D. melanogaster) 27 NP_648121.1 66.2 7e-13
D3TP17 Ras-related GTPase Ras-related protein; (A. mellifera) 25 XP_623951.1 66.6 5e-13
D3TQN6 Ubiquitin protein ligase (also known as E3) Bendless/ ubiquitin conjugating enzyme 13; (D. melanogaster) 33 ACZ95287.1 100 3e-23 Toll; IMD; signaling Humoral immune response. Bendless mutants have inefficient IMD pathway induction
  1. Protein sequences were blasted against the Insect Innate Immunity Database (IIID). Sixteen of these proteins have been reported to be upregulated in the midguts, fat bodies and SGs of different trypanosome-infected tsetse species. The remaining three proteins aare implicated in the immunity of other insects (see citations in the manuscript text). All the 18 proteins were upregulated in parasitized SGs compared to unparasitized SGs; six proteins bwere significantly upregulated