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Table 1 Visceral leishmaniasis in East Africa

From: A review of visceral leishmaniasis during the conflict in South Sudan and the consequences for East African countries

VL cycle Causative agent, vector and disease reservoir References
Anthroponotic (VL) Parasite: Leishmania donovani [11, 15, 17, 20, 22, 23, 45, 57]
Vectors: Phlebotomus (Larroussius) orientalis;
Ph. (Synphlebotomus) martini;
Ph. (Anaphlebotomus) rodhaini a;
Ph. (Synphlebotomus) celiae
Disease reservoirs: Humans
Zoonotic (VL) Parasites: Leishmania donovani, Leishmania infantum, Leishmania archibaldi [15, 22, 33, 57]
Vectors: Phlebotomus rodhaini is possible vector for ZVL in East Africa
Disease reservoirs: Rodents (Egyptian mongoose) and dogs are possible reservoirs for ZVL cycle
  1. a Phlebotomus rodhaini has been found to be infected with L. donovani in Eastern Sudan and is reported to be a possible vector for transmission of the disease between animal reservoirs