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Table 1 Pooled prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes

From: The geographical distribution and prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in animals in the European Union and adjacent countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Country No. of studies included Pooled prevalence (%) 95 % CI (%) Time range of studies (years) Reference
Austria 13 8.0 2.0–17.0 1989–2000 [3743]
6.5 4.3–9.1 2000–2005 [44]
Belgium 17 13.5 3.6–28.4 1993–2000 [4549]
8.0 3.0–16.0 2000–2012 [24, 4955]
Croatia 3 2.3 1.1–15.6 2013–2016 [24; Relja Beck, personal communication]
Czech Republic 10 12.7 6.1–21.2 1994–1999 [7883]
16.0 4.0–35.0 2005–2010 [30, 3140]
Denmark 6 0.5 0.2–0.8 2000–2013 [24, 25, 27, 39]
Estonia 4 24.5 13.0–38.2 2003–2014 [8486]
Finland 8 0 0 2000–2013 [32, 45, 199]
France 72 23 16.0–30.0 1968–2000 [8796]
13.9 9.8–18.6 2000–2010 [30, 31, 40, 97104]
Germany 303 13.8 12.3–15.3 1973–2000 [39, 41, 105143]
29.2 26.0–32.4 2000–2012 [24, 30, 31, 40, 109, 117, 131, 144151]
Hungary 42 8.0 5.6–10.7 2008–2013 [24, 5659]
Ireland 9 0 0 2003–2013 [31, 199201]
Italy 26 0.55a na 1997–2000 [60]
1.5 0.5–2.9 2000–2012 [24, 6066]
Latvia 14 36.8 22.2–52.9 2002–2008 [152]
Lithuania 2 58.0 54.0–62.0 2001–2006 [153, 154]
Luxembourg 9 16.7 9.4–25.6 2005–2012 [24, 30, 31, 40]
Netherlands 14 4.0 2.0–6.0 1995–2000 [6769]
4.7 1.9–9.0 2000–2013 [30, 31, 40, 49, 54, 6772]
Poland 69 2.0 1.3–3.0 1994–2000 [155160]
14.8 9.6–20.8 2000–2014 [161171]
Romania 32 0 0 1981–1992 [73]
4.5 2.9–6.4 2000–2010 [74, 75]
Slovakia 3 23 12.3–15.3 1998–1999 [260]
64 27.3 24.4–30.3 2000–2013 [24, 28, 31, 40, 164, 172184]
Slovenia 2 0.9 0.2–5.3 2002–2005 [28, 29]
Spain 1 0a na 2012 [24]
Sweden 10 0.2 0.1–0.3 2000–2012 [24, 3036]
United Kingdom 8 0 0 2000–2014 [24, 160, 199, 200, 202]
Liechtenstein 1 34.9a na 1990–1992 [70]
Norway 29 0 0 2000–2014 [24, 31, 32, 203206]
Switzerland 59 26.8 23.0–30.7 1988–2000 [39, 185191]
17.0 6.1–31.9 2000–2003 [24, 30, 40, 192198]
Ukraine 4 2.8 0.1–9.0 2000–2010 [76, 77]
  1. (a) Prevalence estimate from only one study, not pooled prevalence
  2. Abbreviations: na, not applicable