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Table 4 Data on Echinococcus multilocularis infection in definitive and intermediate hosts

From: The geographical distribution and prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in animals in the European Union and adjacent countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Country Definitive hosts (DHs) Intermediate hosts (HIs)
Red fox Raccoon dog Other (sylvatic) Other (domestic) Arvicolids Muskrat Other
Austria(L) Yes na na No (cat, dog) na(S) na(S) na
Belgium Yes na na na Yes Yes No (murids; insectivores)
Bulgaria(N) na(S) na(S) na na na(S) na(S) na
Croatia(L) Yes na(S) na na na(S) na(S) na
Cyprus(F) na na na(S) No (dog) na(S) na na(S)
Czech Republic Yes na na Yes (cat, dog) Yes na No (murids; insectivores)
Denmark(L) Yes No No (wild canids) Yes (cat),
no (dog)
na(S) na(S) na
Estonia(L) Yes Yes na na na(S) na(S) na
Finland(F) No No No (wild canids) No (dog) No na No (swine)
France Yes na na Yes (cat, dog) Yes Yes Yes (nutria, murids);
No (insectivores)
Germany Yes Yes na Yes (cat, dog) Yes Yes Yes (nutria, swine);
No (murids)
Greece(F) na(S) na(S) na na na(S) na(S) na
Hungary(L) Yes na Yes (golden jackal) na na(S) na(S) na
Ireland(F) No na(S) na na na(S) na(S) na
Italy Yes na na No (cat, dog) na(S) na(S) na
Latvia(L) Yes Yes Yes (wild canids) na na(S) na(S) na
Lithuania Yes Yes na Yes (dog) na(S) na(S) Yes (swine)
Luxembourg Yes na na No (cat, dog) na Yes na
Malta(F) na na na(S) No (dog) na(S) na na(S)
Netherlands Yes No na Yes (cat)
No (dog)
na Yes na
Poland(L) Yes Yes na No (cat, dog) No na(S) No (murids; insectivores)
Portugal(N) na(S) na(S) na na na na(S) na
Romania Yes na na na Yes na No (swine)
Slovakia(L) Yes Yes No (wild canids) Yes (dog)
No (cat)
na(S) na(S) na
Slovenia(L) Yes na na na na(S) na(S) na
Spain(F) No na(S) na na na(S) na(S) na
Sweden Yes No No (wild canids) No (dog) na na(S) No (swine)
United Kingdom(F) No na(S) na No (cat, dog) na(S) na(S) na
Albania(N) na(S) na(S) na na na na na
Belarus(N) na(S) na(S) na na na na na
Bosnia and Herzegovina(N) na(S) na(S) na na na(S) na(S) na
Macedonia(N) na(S) na(S) na na na(S) na(S) na
Iceland(N) na(S) na(S) na na na(S) na(S) na
Kosovo(N) na(S) na(S) na na na(S) na(S) na
Liechtenstein(L) Yes na na na na(S) na(S) na
Moldova(N) na(S) na(S) na na na(S) na(S) na
Montenegro(N) na(S) na(S) na na na(S) na(S) na
Norway No na(S) Yes (Arctic fox) na Yes na No (swine)
Russia(N) na(S) na(S) na na na(S) na(S) na
Serbia(N) na(S) na(S) na na na(S) na(S) na
Switzerland Yes na na Yes (cat, dog) Yes na No (murids)
Yes (swine)
Turkey(N) na(S) na(S) na na na(S) na(S) na
Ukraine(L) Yes No No (wild canids) na na(S) na(S) na
  1. Countries with (F)are those potentially free from Echinococcus multilocularis. Countries with (N)have no data on Echinococcus multilocularis in DHs or IHs. Countries with (L)have detected the presence of the parasite, but data on the main DH and/or IH are lacking. Cells marked with (S)indicate that those animal species should be screened, if present, either to ascertain the absence of the parasite or the presence of specific hosts important for maintaining the parasite life-cycle. When the main DH and IH are not present, alternative and suitable hosts to be screened should be found (e.g. in Malta and Cyprus)
  2. Abbreviation: na, not applicable