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Fig. 2 | Parasites & Vectors

Fig. 2

From: Insight on the larval habitat of Afrotropical Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in the Niayes area of Senegal, West Africa

Fig. 2

Pictures of the 12 Culicoides larval habitats investigated. The red arrow indicates where samples were collected. a Larval habitat 1 (outdoor fresh horse manure). The manure is wet, recently deposited on a heap. The manure was previously collected in horse boxes and is a mixture of sand and horse faeces. b Larval habitat 2 (outdoor old horse manure). Manure is a mixture of sand and horse faeces, partially dry and localized on a heap. c Larval habitat 3 (inside farm along protected fence). Samples were a mixture of manure and moist organic matter. d Larval habitat 4 (indoor litter soil). Solid and wet litter was collected inside horse boxes. Litter is a mix of sand and horse urine. e Larval habitat 5 (indoor humid soil). Solid and wet litter was collected inside horse boxes, under and around troughs. f Larval habitat 6 (water flow). Samples were collected at the edge of a water flow. Water resulted from washing horses and contained a lot of horse hairs, soap and organic matter (mainly faeces). Soil was sandy. g Larval habitat 7 (pond edge). Samples were collected at the interface between water and ground. Ponds were always located outside farms, with vegetation, and are used as water reserve for irrigation. Water is present all year along and soil was muddy and sandy. h Larval habitat 8 (brackish river and lake edges). Samples were collected at the interface between water and sandy soil. Water is highly polluted by riverine waste and presents a green/dark colour. i Larval habitat 9 (puddle edges). Samples were collected at the interface between water and ground. All the puddles sampled during our study results from water leak. Water was from a drilling and therefore does not contained chlorine. Soil was muddy. j Larval habitat 10 (fresh cattle dung). Samples were collected from dung deposited inside cattle boxes. k Larval habitat 11 (cattle dung heap). Samples were collected from a large cattle dung heap near the farm. Organic matter was humid. l Larval habitat 12 (liquid manure). Samples were collected from a flow channel of cattle liquid manure. It was a mix of urine and faeces

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