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Table 1 The qualitatively different behavioural responses (parameterisation and associated vector behaviours) described by the new formula

From: How do biting disease vectors behaviourally respond to host availability?

Response type Ecological equivalent Parametric conditions Vector behaviour
Type I Analogous to Holling’s Type I α = 1
β = 1
Indiscriminate; or vector biting that is consistent (proportionate) across relative availabilities of alternative hosts.
Type II Analogous to Holling’s Type II α < 1
β ≥ 1
The HBI of an anthropophilic vector saturates whereby even when humans and non-humans have similar availability, almost all blood meals are secured from humans.
Type III Analogous to Holling’s Type III α ≥ 1
β > 1
Similar to a Type II response, the HBI saturates, but at low levels of human availability vectors are uninclined to bite them. Corresponding with the analogous Holling’s Type, this could be associated with a learned behaviour with an increased rate of human encounters.
Type IV Inversion of Holling’s Type II α > 1
β ≤ 1
A zoophilic vector is uninclined to bite humans until they constitute all but the only available blood source.
Type V Inversion of Holling’s Type III α ≤ 1
β < 1
HBI saturates and becomes relatively invariant when humans and non-human hosts are at similar availability. This is analogous to ‘negative prey switching’ whereby the ‘predator’ consumes disproportionately less of the more available ‘prey’ [41]. Eventually, when non-humans become vanishingly rare, the HBI is forced to increase sharply to unity.