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Fig. 1 | Parasites & Vectors

Fig. 1

From: Crosstalk between purinergic receptors and lipid mediators in leishmaniasis

Fig. 1

Schematic representation of elimination and evasion mechanisms mediated by purinergic signaling and lipid mediators during Leishmania infection. a Leishmania spp. promastigotes can be recognized by PRRs. This recognition leads to the release of ATP into the extracellular medium. b eATP active P2X7 receptors, which in turn leads to release of LTB4. c LTB4 binds to specific receptors on cell membrane, as BLT1, causing the elimination of Leishmania spp. by production of ROS, NO, and participates on Th1 and Th17 polarization. d In order to evade the immune system and ensure its survival, Leishmania spp. possess ecto-nucleotidase enzymes, such as E-NTPDase and ecto-5’-nucleotidase, removing eATP and favoring Ado accumulation. e Ado actives P1 receptors, such as A2B, increasing COX-2 expression and therefore leads to the release of PGE2. f PGE2 in turn binds EP receptors on cellular membranes, causing the decrease of ROS and NO production, and participates on Th2 polarization, resulting in establishment and dissemination of Leishmania spp. infection

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