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Table 5 Predictors of infection with pooled STH species, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura across 19 extension study sentinel sites in Burundi from 2008 to 2011 combined with prevalence data obtained by a re-evaluation survey in 2014 from 14 of the 19 extension schools. Results shown are from binomial mixed models. Age had been standardised (mean centred and divided by estimated standard deviation)

From: The impact of an 8-year mass drug administration programme on prevalence, intensity and co-infections of soil-transmitted helminthiases in Burundi

  Pooled STH Ascaris lumbricoides
n = 20,871 observations, pseudo-R 2 MF = 0.13, R 2 marg. = 0.064; R 2 cond. = 0.31 n = 20,879 observations, pseudo-R 2 MF = 0.22, R 2 marg. = 0.024; R 2 cond. = 0.50
Fixed Effects   Parameter (SE) Adjusted odds ratio (95 % CI) P Parameter (SE) Adjusted odds ratio (95 % CI) P
(Intercept)   -0.75 (0.22) 0.47 (0.31–0.73) *** -2.22 (0.39) 0.11 (0.05–0.23) ***
Year 2009 -0.54 (0.21) 0.58 (0.39–0.88) * -0.52 (0.31) 0.59 (0.32–1.09) ns
  2011 -1.30 (0.17) 0.27 (0.2–0.38) *** -0.92 (0.22) 0.40 (0.26–0.62) ***
  2014 -1.01 (0.21) 0.36 (0.24–0.55) *** -0.71 (0.32) 0.49 (0.26–0.93) *
Age   -0.02 (0.02) 0.98 (0.94–1.02) ns -0.08 (0.026) 0.92 (0.87–0.97) **
Age^2   -0.06 (0.017) 0.94 (0.91–0.98) *** -0.04 (0.023) 0.96 (0.92–1.01) ns
Sex (male)   0.12 (0.037) 1.13 (1.05–1.22) *** 0.11 (0.048) 1.12 (1.02–1.23) *
Random Effects   Variance SD   Variance SD  
Pupil (Intercept)   0.24 0.49 *** 0.26 0.51 ***
School (Intercept)   0.90 0.95   2.82 1.68  
Year 2009   0.78 0.89   1.65 1.28  
Year 2011   0.47 0.69   0.81 0.90  
Year 2014   0.44 0.67   1.08 1.04  
Random Slope year     ***    ***
  Hookworm   Trichuris trichiura  
n = 20,876 observations, pseudo-R2 MF = 0.096, R 2 marg. = 0.082; R 2 cond. = 0.22   n = 20,877 observations, pseudo-R 2 MF = 0.15, R 2 marg. = 0.058; R 2 cond. = 0.42  
Fixed Effects   Parameter (SE) Adjusted odds ratio (95 % CI) P Parameter (SE) Adjusted odds ratio (95 % CI) P
(Intercept)   -2.05 (0.16) 0.13 (0.09–0.18) *** -2.94 (0.28) 0.05 (0.03–0.09) ***
Year 2009 -0.79 (0.21) 0.45 (0.3–0.68) *** 0.08 (0.23) 1.09 (0.70–1.69) ns
  2011 -1.39 (0.18) 0.25 (0.17–0.36) *** -1.07 (0.18) 0.34 (0.24–0.49) ***
  2014 -1.60 (0.49) 0.20 (0.08–0.53) ** -1.21 (0.33) 0.30 (0.16–0.56) ***
Age   0.05 (0.029) 1.05 (1–1.12) ns -0.02 (0.031) 0.98 (0.92–1.04) ns
Age^2   -0.03 (0.025) 0.97 (0.92–1.01) ns -0.1 (0.028) 0.90 (0.85–0.95) ***
Sex (male)   0.12 (0.052) 1.13 (1.02–1.25) * 0.09 (0.058) 1.09 (0.98–1.22) ns
Random Effects   Variance SD   Variance SD  
Pupil (Intercept)   0.16 0.40 ns 0.66 0.81 ***
School (Intercept)   0.41 0.64   1.40 1.18  
Year 2009   0.70 0.84   0.82 0.90  
Year 2011   0.52 0.72   0.39 0.63  
Year 2014   1.96 1.4   0.28 0.53  
Random Slope year     ***    ***
  1. Abbreviations: ns not significant (P > 0.05); SD standard deviation; SE standard error
  2. *P ≤ 0.05; **P ≤ 0.01; ***P ≤ 0.001