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Table 6 Predictors for the presence of multiple infections across all 19 extension study sentinel sites in Burundi combined with the data obtained by a mapping survey in 2014 from 14 of the 19 extension schools. All pupils (infected and uninfected, n = 20,871 observations) were included in the data. Results are from a binomial mixed model, age had been mean-centred and divided by the estimate of its standard deviation (SD). The pseudo-R 2 values for this model were pseudo-R 2 MF = 0.196; R 2 marg = 0.079; R 2 cond. = 0.479

From: The impact of an 8-year mass drug administration programme on prevalence, intensity and co-infections of soil-transmitted helminthiases in Burundi

Fixed effects Category Parameter Adjusted odds ratio (CI) P
(Intercept)   -3.61 (0.35) 0.03 (0.01–0.05) < 0.001
Year 2009 -0.57 (0.21) 0.57 (0.37–0.86) 0.008
  2011 -1.59 (0.21) 0.2 (0.13–0.31) < 0.001
  2014 -1.88 (0.72) 0.15 (0.04–0.62) 0.009
Sex (male)   0.17 (0.078) 1.18 (1.01–1.37) 0.033
Age   -0.03 (0.044) 0.97 (0.89–1.06) 0.529
Age^2   -0.09 (0.039) 0.91 (0.84–0.98) 0.016
Random effects   Variance SD P
Pupil (Intercept) 0.55 0.74 < 0.001
School (Intercept) 2.00 1.40  
Year 2009   0.50 0.71  
Year 2011   0.30 0.55  
Year 2014   2.00 1.40  
Random slope year     < 0.001