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Table 1 Recent data on Schistosoma mansoni vaccine candidates

From: Schistosomiasis vaccines: where do we stand?

Antigen Location in adult worm Identity/Function Immunization strategy Adjuvant Host Worm burden reduction (%) Liver egg burden reduction (%) Reference
Sm-p80 Associated with tegument inner membrane Calpain-neutral cysteine protease Recombinant protein Resiquimod Mouse 50 16 [2530]
Primed with pcDNA3 and boosted with recombinant protein Resiquimod Mouse 49 30
Primed and boosted with recombinant protein Oligodeoxynucleotide Mouse 70 75
Recombinant protein Resiquimod Baboon 58
DNA vaccine Baboon 38–46 32–28
Fatty acid binding protein (FABP) (Sm14) Whole body, Cytosolic Absorbs, transports and compartmentalizes fatty acids from the host Recombinant protein Mouse 67 [18]
Tetraspanin protein 2 (Sm-TSP2) Tegument apical membrane Tetraspanin integral membrane protein Recombinant protein Freund’s Mouse 57 64 [99, 100]
Recombinant protein Alum/CpG Mouse 25 27
Glutathione S-transferase (Sh28GST) Whole body Enzyme involved in fatty acid metabolism and prostaglandin D2 synthesis Recombinant protein Aluminium Baboon 0–80 [101]
Sm29 Tegument apical membrane Unknown, but has a C-terminal domain DNA vaccine with pUMVC3 plasmid Mouse 17–22 [44, 102]
Recombinant protein Complete Freund’s and Incomplete Freund’s Mouse 51
Sm14 + Sm-29 Multivalent recombinant proteins Poly (I; C) Mouse 40 68 [41]
Sm29 + Sm-TSP-2 Multivalent DNA vaccine with pUMVC3 plasmid Mouse 24–32 [43, 44]
Multivalent Recombinant proteins CpG-Alum Mouse 35
Oesophageal gland secretion (Sm100.3) Oesophagus Digestive tract proteins (oesophageal) Recombinant proteins Freund’s Mouse 25–32 33–44 [103]
Cathepsin B1(SmCB1) Gut (gastrodermis) Gut protease (cysteine peptidase) Recombinant proteins Postulated to have inbuilt adjuvant properties Mouse 73 83 [104, 105]
(Combined with SG3PDHa + PRX-MAPb)
S. mansoni Cathepsin B (Sm-CB) Gut (gastrodermis) Gut protease (cysteine peptidase) Recombinant proteins CpG oligodeoxynucleotides Mouse 59 56
Montanide ISA 750 VG Mouse 60 62
Schistosome cysteine proteinase, asparaginyl endopeptidase (SmAE) (Sm32) Gut Gut protease (Asparaginyl peptidase) DNA vaccine Mouse No significant reduction 37 [106]
Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein (Sm-LAMP) Gastrodermis Processing of ingested blood Recombinant protein alum-CpG Mouse 16–25 [49]
Dynein light chain proteins Unknown Evolutionarily conserved among different organisms Recombinant protein Alhydrogel Mouse    [52]
 - DLC 12       43
 - DLC 13 51
S. mansoni Syntenin (SmSynt) Intestinal tract Scaffold supporting protein Recombinant protein Complete and incomplete Freund’s Mouse 30–37 [107]
Radiation-attenuated cercariae UV-attenuated Mouse 43 73 [54]
Antioxidants
 - Cu/Zn cytosolic superoxide dismutase DNA vaccine Mouse 44–60 [46, 47]
 - signal peptide-containing superoxide dismutase DNA vaccine Mouse 22–45   
 - glutathione peroxidase enzymes
  DNA vaccine Mouse 23–55   
      Baboon 17.1   
  1. aGlyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
  2. bperoxiredoxin