Skip to main content

Table 1 Molecular and serological studies performed on Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. infections in wild carnivores

From: A review of piroplasmid infections in wild carnivores worldwide: importance for domestic animal health and wildlife conservation

Host Reported prevalence Targeted agent Country/Region Sample origin Observation Reference
% (positive/n) Technique
Canidae
Bush dog (Speothos venaticus) 29.0 (8/27) IFAT Babesia sp. Brazil Z   [66]
Coyote (Canis latrans) 0/12 PCR B. microti-likea USA W   [63]
Crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) 5.0 (2/39) IFAT Babesia sp. Brazil Z   [66]
Fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) (1/11) PCR Babesia sp. North Africa W   [126]
Golden jackal (Canis aureus) 0/32 PCR Babesia sp. North Africa W   [126]
Grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) 26.0 (8/31) PCR B. microti-like USA W   [63]
Hoary fox (Pseudolopex vetulus) 0/7 IFAT Babesia sp. Brazil Z   [66]
Maned wolf (Cerdocyon brachyurus) 0/21 IFAT Babesia sp. Brazil Z   [66]
Pale fox (Vulpes pallida) 4.0 (1/28) PCR Babesia sp. North Africa W   [126]
Racoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) (3/14) PCR B. microti-like South Korea W Emaciated. One with severe tick infestation [62]
Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) 1.1 (1/91) PCR B. canis Portugal W   [53]
  0.7 (1/138) PCR Babesia sp. Northeastern Poland W   [63]
  0/13 PCR B. microti-like Sicily, Italy W   [127]
  0/16 PCR Babesia sp. North Africa W   [126]
  0.8 (1/119) PCR B. canis Bosnia W   [58]
  50.0 (10/20) PCR B. microti-like Spain W   [128, 129]
  (1/2) PCR B. microti-like Italy W   [130]
  (1/5) PCR B. microti-like Spain W   [55]
  37.0 (58/158) PCR B. microti-like USA W   [63]
  (1/1) PCR B. microti-like Prince Edward Island, Canada W Weakness, anemia, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis, bronchopneumonia and vacuolar hepatopathy [64]
  5.2 (10/191) PCR B. microti-like Croatia W   [59]
  0.5 (1/191) PCR B. microti-like Croatia W   [59]
  69.2 (63/91) PCR B. microti-like Portugal W   [53]
  50.0 (18/36) PCR B. microti-like Austria W   [56]
  46.0 (121/261) PCR B. microti-like Thuringia, Germany W Carcasses with high infestations of ticks [60]
  0.98 (2/205) PCR B. microti-like Italy W   [12]
  20.0 (81/404) PCR B. microti-like Hungary W   [57]
  31.9 (38/119) PCR B. microti-like Bosnia W 9.2 % co-infection with Hepatozoon canis; one fox co-infected with B. canis and H. canis [58]
  (2/12) PCR B. microti-like Catalonia, Spain W One fox co-infected with Coxiella burnetti [83]
  14.6 (46/360) PCR B. microti-like   W/R   [131]
Ruppell fox (Vulpes rueppellii) 0/11 PCR Babesia sp. North Africa W   [126]
Side-striped jackal (Canis adustos) 0/2 PCR Babesia sp. North Africa W   [126]
Wild dog (Lycaon pictus) 5.3 (16/301) PCR B. rossi South Africa W   [132]
  0/11 PCR Babesia sp. Zambia W Co-infection with Hepatozoon sp. [109]
Wolf (Canis lupus) 0/7 PCR B. microti-like Italy W   [12]
  0/3 IFAT Babesia sp. Brazil Z   [66]
  (2/12) PCR B. canis Budapest, Hungary R Good body condition. Necropsy with severe jaudice, liver, gall bladder and spleen enlarged [106]
  0/7 PCR Babesia sp. Italy W   [12]
Ursidae
Hokkaido brown bear (Ursus arctos yesoensis) (1/1) PCR Babesia sp. UR1 Hokkaido, Japan W Heavily infested with ticks and anemia. Co-infection with Cytauxzoon sp. [79]
Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) 14.1 (22/156) PCR Babesia sp. Iwate, Japan W 76.3 % co-infection with Hepatozoon ursi [48]
Procyonidae
Raccoon (Procyon lotor) 8.3 (2/24) PCR Babesia sp. Hokkaido, Japan W All have splenomegaly [44]
  (1/1) PCR Babesia sp. Illinois, USA W Anemia [46]
  90.0 (37/41) PCR Babesia sp. North Carolina, USA W 67 % co-infection with B. microti-like [89]
  83.0 (34/41) PCR B. microti-like North Carolina, USA W 76 % co-infection with Babesia (sensu stricto) clade [89]
  1.7 (6/348) PCR Babesia sp. Hokkaido, Japan W Heavily infested with ticks [47]
  (14/17) PCR B. microti-like Florida, USA W   [45]
White-nosed coatis (Nasua narica) 100 (20) PCR Babesia sp. Costa Rica W   [133]
Mustelidae
American mink (Neovison vison) (13/13) PCR Babesia sp. NV-1 Hokkaido, Japan W   [134]
Badger (Meles meles) (1/5) PCR Babesia sp. Burgos, Spain W   [55]
North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) 82.0 (32/39) PCR Babesia sp. North Carolina, USA W Wild-caught [135]
Stone marten (Martes foina) (1/10) PCR B. vogeli Catalonia, Spain W Co-infection with Bartonella clarridgeiae [83]
Felidae
Black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) (5/8) PCR Babesia sp. Swaziland, Southern Africa R   [65]
Caracal (Caracal caracal) (1/1) PCR Babesia sp. Durban, South Africa W Found ill with clinical sign of feline babesiosis [136]
  0/2 PCR Babesia sp. Swaziland, Southern Africa W   [65]
  0/1 IFAT Babesia sp. Brazil Z   [66]
Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) 19.0 (18/97) PCR B. felis Namibia R   [65]
  6.1 (3/49) PCR B. felis Namibia W   [65]
  3.0 (3/97) PCR B. leo Namibia R   [65]
  28.5 (39/137) D/PCR B. lengau South Africa R   [137]
  (5/5) PCR Theileria sp. Salama-Malili ranch, Kenia R Subclinical [69]
  0/5 PCR Babesia sp. Salama-Malili ranch, Kenia R Subclinical [69]
  (4/4) PCR B. leo Zimbabwe R   [65]
Fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) 0/1 IFAT Babesia sp. Brazil Z   [66]
Jaguar (Panthera onca) (6/13) IFAT Babesia sp. Brazil Z   [66]
Leopard (Panthera pardus) (1/1) PCR B. leo Namibia, Swaziland, South Africa R   [65]
  (2/2) PCR Babesia sp. Nairobi National Park, Kenya R Subclinical [69]
  0/1 IFAT Babesia sp. Brazil Z   [66]
Lion (Panthera leo) (16/16) D/PCR Babesia sp. Kruger National Park, South Africa W Blood samples [136]
  12.0 (3/25) PCR B. leo Swaziland, Southern Africa R Co-infection with B. felis [65]
  25.0 (14/56) PCR B. leo Swaziland, Southern Africa W Co-infection with B. felis [65]
  12.0 (3/25) PCR B. felis Swaziland, Southern Africa R   [65]
  1.7 (1/56) PCR B. felis Swaziland, Southern Africa W   [65]
  89.5 (238/266) PCR Babesia sp. Serengeti W 1994 Canine distemper virus epidemic [93], Terio personal communication
  97.0 (34/35) PCR Babesia sp. Ngorongoro W 2001 Canine distemper virus epidemic [93], Terio personal communication
  0/12 IFAT Babesia sp. Brazil Z   [66]
  (2/2) D/PCR B. canis Nairobi Orphanage, Kenya R Anemia, lethargy, wobble movement and dry eyes [69]
  12.0 (10/86) PCR B. vogeli Zimbabwe R   [67]
  59.0 (51/86) PCR B. leo Zimbabwe R   [67]
  25.0 (6/24) PCR B. felis Zambia W Co-infection with Hepatozoon sp. [109]
  25.0 (6/24) PCR B. leo Zambia W Co-infection with Hepatozoon sp. [109]
  1.0 (1/86) PCR T. sinensis Zimbabwe R   [67]
  1.0 (1/86) PCR T. parva Zimbabwe R   [67]
Little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus) 24.0 (9/38) IFAT Babesia sp. Brazil Z   [66]
Margay (Leopardus wiedii) (2/4) IFAT Babesia sp. Brazil Z   [66]
Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) 60.0 (26/43) IFAT Babesia sp. Brazil Z   [66]
Pampas cat (Oncifelis colocolo) (3/5) IFAT/PCR Babesia sp. Brazil Z   [66]
Puma (Puma concolor) 78.0 (32/41) PCR Babesia sp. Florida, USA W 5 % co-infection with C. felis [119]
  (2/18) IFAT Babesia sp. Brazil Z   [66]
Tiger (Panthera tigris) 0/6 IFAT Babesia sp. Brazil Z   [66]
Serval (Leptailurus serval) (1/3) PCR B. felis Swaziland, Southern Africa R   [65]
  (2/2) PCR B. vogeli Zimbabwe R   [67]
  0/1 IFAT Babesia sp. Brazil Z   [66]
Wild cat (Felis silvestris) (6/6) PCR B. vogeli Zimbabwe R   [67]
Yaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) 25.0 (6/25) IFAT Babesia sp. Brazil Z   [66]
Viverridae
Common genet (Genetta genetta) (1/2) IFAT/PCR Babesia sp. Brazil Z   [66]
  0/34 PCR Babesia sp. Catalonia, Spain W   [83]
Hyaenidae
Spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) (6/19) PCR Babesia sp. Zambia W Co-infection with Hepatozoon sp. [109]
Herpestidae
South-African meerkats (Suricata suricatta) 80.0 (37/46) D/PCR Babesia sp. Kalahari, South Africa W 46 % of co-infection with Cytauxzoon sp. [78]
  1. aWe used the name Babesia microti-like for all isolates belonging to the B. microti group and reported by their authors as B. microti-like, "T. annae", "B. annae" or "B. vulpes"
  2. Abbreviations: D direct examination of smear, H histology, IFAT Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test, PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction, Z Zoo collection, R rehabilitation center, W wild animal