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Table 2 Molecular studies of Rangelia vitalii and Cytauxzoon sp. infections in wild carnivores

From: A review of piroplasmid infections in wild carnivores worldwide: importance for domestic animal health and wildlife conservation

Host Reported prevalence Targeted agent Country/Region Sample origin Observation Reference
% (positive/n) Technique
Canidae
Crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) 30.0 (6/20) PCR R. vitalii Brazil W   [11]
  (1/1) PCR R. vitalii Brazil W Cachexia and intense dehydration, conjunctiva and oral mucosae were distinctly pale. Co-infection with canine distemper virus. [73]
Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) 0/4 PCR R. vitalii Brazil W   [11]
  (1/1) PCR R. vitalii Brazil W Mucosae were moderately pale. Spleen with moderate follicle hyperplasia and extramedullary hematopoiesis. [73]
  (1/1) PCR R. vitalii Brazil W Kidney with hyaline degeneration and coagulation necrosis. Liver with slight vacuolar degeneration. Spleen with red pulp hyperplasia. [72]
Ursidae
Hokkaido brown bear (Ursus arctos yesoensis) (1/1) PCR Cytauxzoon sp. Hokkaido, Japan W Heavily infested with ticks and anemia. Co-infection with Babesia sp. UR1 [79]
Felidae
Bobcat (Lynx rufus) 33.0 (10/30) PCR C. felis North Carolina, USA W Region where cytauxzoonosis is prevalent in domestic cat [138]
  7.0 (5/69) PCR C. felis Pennsylvania, USA W Region where cytauxzoonosis is not prevalent in domestic cat [138]
  25.6 (34/133) PCR C. felis Arkansas, USA W   [105]
  20.0 (138/696) PCR C. felis 13 states, USA W   [90]
  0/1 PCR C. felis USA R   [139]
Wild cat (Felis silvestris ornata) (1/1) D/PCR C. felis Iran W Cachexia and anemia [140]
European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) 14.3 (3/21) PCR Cytauxzoon sp. Italy W Road kill animals [121]
Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) 1.9 (1/51) D/PCR Cytauxzoon sp. Sierra Morena, Spain W One injured young male [76]
  15.0 (3/20) PCR Cytauxzoon sp. Sierra Morena, Spain W   [75]
  75.0 (24/32) PCR C. felis Sierra Morena, Spain W   [77]
  0/45 PCR C. felis Doñana, Spain W   [77]
  26.9 (25/112) PCR C. felis Sierra Morena, Spain W/R 22 % co-infection with Toxoplasma gondii [141]
Jaguar (Panthera onca) (1/6) PCR Cytauxzoon sp. Brazil R   [111]
  (26/26) PCR C. felis Pantanal, Brazil W   [142]
Little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus) 0/14 PCR Cytauxzoon sp. Brazil R   [111]
Lion (Panthera leo) 0/266 PCR C. felis Serengeti W 1994 Canine distemper virus epidemic [93]
  0/35 PCR C. felis Ngorongoro W 2001 Canine distemper virus epidemic [93]
  0/1 PCR C. felis USA R   [139]
  2.0 (2/86) PCR C. manul Zimbabwe R   [67]
Margay (Leopardus wiedii) 0/2 PCR Cytauxzoon sp. Brazil R   [111]
Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) 6.8 (2/29) PCR Cytauxzoon sp. Brazil R   [111]
Pallas's cat (Otocolobus manul) (4/4) H/D/PCR C. manul Mongolia W Trapped in Mongolia and transported to USA [74, 122, 143]
  0/3 PCR Cytauxzoon sp. Brazil R   [111]
Puma (Puma concolor) 12.0 (5/41) PCR C. felis Florida, USA W 5 % co-infection with Babesia sp. [119]
  (3/3) D/PCR C. felis Florida, USA R 1 cougar with anorexia and lethargy. Hematological findings of mild hemolytic anemia [113]
  (2/9) PCR Cytauxzoon sp. Brazil R   [111]
  (1/7) PCR C. felis USA R   [90]
  0/1 PCR C. felis USA R   [139]
Serval (Leptailurus serval) 0/1 PCR C. felis USA R   [90]
Tiger (Panthera tigris) (4/8) PCR C. felis USA Z   [139]
Yaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) 0/6 PCR Cytauxzoon sp. Brazil R   [111]
Viverridae
Common genet (Genetta genetta) 0/10 PCR Cytauxzoon sp. Doñana, Spain W   [144]
Herpestidae
Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) 0/24 PCR Cytauxzoon sp. Doñana, Spain W   [144]
South African meerkats (Suricata suricatta) 57.0 (26/46) D/PCR Cytauxzoon sp. Kalahari, South Africa W 46 % of co-infection with Babesia sp. [78]
  1. Abbreviations: D direct examination of smear, H histology, IFAT Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test, PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction, Z Zoo collection, R rehabilitation center, W wild animal