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Table 3 Reported body of evidence of Babesia spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. isolates in ticks found on wild carnivores

From: A review of piroplasmid infections in wild carnivores worldwide: importance for domestic animal health and wildlife conservation

Host from which ticks were retrieved Reported prevalences Targeted agent Tick species Region/​Country Reference
% (positive/n) Technique
Canidae
Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) 1/3 adults PCR B. microti-likea Ixodes hexagonus Burgos, Spain [81]
  0/2 nymphs PCR B. microti-like Ixodes hexagonus Burgos, Spain [81]
  (8/870) PCR B. microti-like Ixodes ricinus Thuringia, Germany [60]
  (19/585) PCR B. microti-like Ixodes canisuga Thuringia, Germany [60]
  (13/485) PCR B. microti-like Ixodes hexagonus Thuringia, Germany [60]
  (4/870) PCR B. microti isolate Ixodes ricinus Thuringia, Germany [60]
  (1/585) PCR B. microti isolate Ixodes canisuga Thuringia, Germany [60]
  (1/485) PCR B. microti isolate Ixodes hexagonus Thuringia, Germany [60]
  1 pool of 20 ticks PCR B. microti-like and B. vogeli Rhipicephalus turanicus Catalonia, Spain [83]
Ursidae
Hokkaido brown bear (Ursus arctos yesoensis) 0/1 PCR Cytauxzoon sp. Ixodes ovatus Hokkaido, Japan [79]
Mephitidae
Striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) 19.4 (6/31) PCR B. microti-like Ixodes scapularis New York, USA [82]
Procyonidae
Raccoon (Procyon lotor) 23.5 (93/396) PCR B. microti-like Ixodes scapularis New York, USA [82]
Felidae
Bobcat (Lynx rufus) na D Cytauxzoon sp. Dermacentor variabilis Oklahoma, USA [86]
Lion (Pathera leo) na PCR Babesia sp. Stomoxys sp. Ngorongoro [93]
Mustelidae
Stone marten (Martes foina) 1 pool of 12 ticks PCR B. vogeli Rhipicephalus turanicus Catalonia, Spain [83]
Eurasian badger (Meles meles) 1 pool of 18 nymphs PCR B. microti-like Ixodes canisuga Catalonia, Spain [83]
Viverridae
Common genet (Genetta genetta) 1 pool of 3 ticks PCR Babesia sp. Ixodes ventalloi Catalonia, Spain [83]
  1. aWe used the name Babesia microti-like for all isolates belonging to the B. microti group and reported by their authors as B. microti-like, "T. annae", "B. annae" or "B. vulpes"
  2. Abbreviations: D direct examination of smear, PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction