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Table 1 Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the participants enrolled in the cross-sectional survey, stratified by five exposure groups in the Than Tri district, Hanoi, between April and June 2014

From: Intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors in communities exposed to wastewater in urban and peri-urban transition zones in Hanoi, Vietnam

Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics/Exposure groupsa Com peri-urban Com urban Farmer peri-urban Farmer urban Worker HSDC
N = 101 N = 170 N = 129 N = 153 N = 128
n % n % n % n % n %
Sex
 Female 85 84.2 134 78.8 105 81.4 132 86.3 58 45.3
 Male 16 15.8 36 21.2 24 18.6 21 13.7 70 54.7
Age categories (years) (mean ± SD) 50.0 ± 15.6 45.7 ± 14.5 48.7 ± 11.1 52.6 ± 10.6 41.2 ± 10.7
Educational attainment
 Never went to school 3 3.0 7 4.1 0 0.0 5 3.3 0 0.0
 Primary school 13 12.9 16 9.4 19 14.7 42 27.5 2 1.6
 Secondary school 47 46.5 70 41.2 76 58.9 76 49.7 37 28.9
 Tertiary school 15 14.9 59 34.7 31 24.0 27 17.6 73 57.0
 University degree 23 22.8 18 10.6 3 2.3 3 2.0 16 12.5
Socioeconomic statusb
 Most poor 28 27.7 31 18.2 51 39.5 33 21.6 12 9.4
 Poor 22 21.8 49 28.8 42 32.6 48 31.4 17 13.3
 Less poor 17 16.8 41 24.1 25 19.4 34 22.2 56 43.8
 Least poor 34 33.7 49 28.8 11 8.5 38 24.8 43 33.6
How many people live in your household (mean ± SD) 4.7 ± 2.0 4.6 ± 1.7 4.3 ± 1.9 5.1 ± 2.6 5.3 ± 8.5
Living at the same place (years) (mean ± SD) 34.4 ± 21.3 37.7 ± 19.8 37.8 ± 19.5 53.3 ± 56.3 34.0 ± 14.5
  1. aExposure groups: Com peri-urban : people living in the peri-urban commune Duyen Ha, 5 km away from the city along the Red River; Com urban : people living in the urban area of Hanoi, in Bang B village or Tam Hiep commune along the To Lich River and potential exposed to wastewater; Farmer peri-urban : peri-urban farmers living in Duyen Ha commune using the irrigation water from Red River, wells or local drains, which are not contaminated with the city’s wastewater; Farmer urban : urban farmers living in Bang B village or Tam Hiep commune reusing wastewater from To Lich River; and Worker HSDC : workers from Hanoi Sewerage and Drainage Company (HSDC) maintaining drainage channels and operating the Yen So treatment plants
  2. bDerived using principal components analysis (PCA) of the following 11 ownership items: radio, TV, mobile phone, fridge, computer, bicycle, motorbike, car, electricity, running water and latrine