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Table 2 Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) specific risk factors of the participants enrolled in a cross-sectional survey, stratified by the five exposure groups in the Than Tri district, Hanoi, between April and June 2014

From: Intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors in communities exposed to wastewater in urban and peri-urban transition zones in Hanoi, Vietnam

Risk factors related to water, sanitation and hygiene/ Exposure groupsa Com peri-urban Com urban Farmer peri-urban Farmer urban Worker HSDC
N = 101 N = 170 N = 129 N = 153 N = 128
n % n % n % n % n %
Wastewater is …
 polluted water 87 86.1 162 95.3 111 86.0 143 93.5 126 98.4
 causing health issues 83 82.2 149 87.6 96 74.4 141 92.2 126 98.4
 causing environmental issues 83 82.2 149 87.6 93 72.1 135 88.2 127 99.2
Exposure to wastewater (water from rivers or lakes around Hanoi) while …
 flooding of living area 0 0.0 5 2.9 3 2.3 2 1.3 17 13.3
 flooding of working area 1 1.0 9 5.3 21 16.3 59 38.6 53 41.4
 washing clothes 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.7 2 1.6
 cleaning of a fish pond 0 0.0 1 0.6 0 0.0 5 3.3 15 11.7
 fishing 3 3.0 7 4.1 3 2.3 6 3.9 13 10.2
 swimming 1 1.0 3 1.8 2 1.6 0 0.0 6 4.7
Toilet facility at household
 Flush toilet 94 93.1 167 98.2 108 83.7 147 96.1 127 99.2
 Pit latrine 6 5.9 6 3.5 2 1.6 6 3.9 0 0.0
 No facility (defecation in the open) 1 1.0 1 0.6 19 14.7 1 0.7 1 0.8
Toilet facility at work
 Flush toilet 91 90.1 150 88.2 61 47.3 47 30.7 39 30.5
 Pit latrine 6 5.9 14 8.3 4 3.1 4 2.6 68 53.1
 No facility (defecation in the open) 4 4.0 6 3.5 64 49.6 102 66.7 21 16.4
Household with tap water 82 81.2 164 96.5 102 79.1 148 96.7 126 98.4
Source of drinking water (multiple answers possible)
 Bottled water 40 39.6 65 38.2 36 27.9 41 26.8 61 47.7
 Tap water 60 59.4 149 87.6 73 56.6 136 88.9 113 88.3
 Rain water 14 13.9 5 2.9 18 14.0 9 5.9 7 5.5
 Bore hole water 31 30.7 7 4.1 43 33.3 4 2.6 1 0.8
Source of bathing water (multiple answers possible)
 Tap water 73 72.3 150 88.2 55 42.6 70 45.8 123 96.1
 Rain water 6 5.9 2 1.2 11 8.5 18 11.8 8 6.3
 Bore hole water 42 41.6 16 9.4 76 58.9 9 5.9 12 9.4
 Well water 2 2.0 0 0.0 4 3.1 0 0.0 2 1.6
 Water from lakes or rivers 0 0.0 1 0.6 5 3.9 48 31.4 19 14.8
Preventive chemotherapy received in the past
 < 6 months 13 12.9 15 8.8 15 11.6 11 7.2 15 11.7
 6 to < 12 months 9 14.1 24 14,1 12 9.3 12 7.8 20 15.6
 > 12 months 75 71.2 121 71.2 96 74.4 114 74.5 87 68.0
 Never took deworming 4 4.0 10 5.9 6 5.7 16 10.5 6 4.7
  1. aExposure groups: Com peri-urban : people living in the peri-urban commune Duyen Ha, 5 km away from the city along the Red River; Com urban : people living in the urban area of Hanoi, in Bang B village or Tam Hiep commune along the To Lich River and potential exposed to wastewater; Farmer peri-urban : peri-urban farmers living in Duyen Ha commune using the irrigation water from Red River, wells or local drains, which are not contaminated with the city’s wastewater; Farmer urban : urban farmers living in Bang B village or Tam Hiep commune reusing wastewater from To Lich River; and Worker HSDC : workers from Hanoi Sewerage and Drainage Company (HSDC) maintaining drainage channels and operating the Yen So treatment plants