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Table 4 Prevalence and intensity of parasite infections among the participants enrolled in the cross-sectional survey in Hanoi, stratified by five exposure groups in the Than Tri district, Hanoi, between April and June 2014

From: Intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors in communities exposed to wastewater in urban and peri-urban transition zones in Hanoi, Vietnam

Prevalence of infection/Exposure groupsa Com peri-urban Com urban Farmer peri-urban Farmer urban Worker HSDC Chi-square test
N = 101 N = 170 N = 129 N = 153 N = 128
n %d n %c n %c n %c n %c P-value
Intestinal parasiteb 7 6.9 17 10.0 39 30.2 17 11.1 13 10.2 < 0.001
Soil-transmitted helminthc 6 5.9 16 9.4 39 30.2 15 9.8 11 8.6 < 0.001
Intestinal protozoa 1 1.0 1 0.6 2 1.6 2 1.3 2 1.6 0.932
Hookworm 4 4.0 6 3.5 32 24.8 11 7.2 5 3.9 < 0.001
 Light infection (1–1,999 epg) 4 4.0 6 3.5 32 24.8 11 7.2 4 3.1 < 0.001
 Moderate infection (2,000–3,999 epg) 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.8  
Trichuris trichiura 2 2.0 9 5.3 7 5.4 4 2.6 9 7.0 0.281
 Light infection (1–999 EPG) 2 2.0 9 5.3 7 5.4 4 2.6 8 6.3 0.384
 Moderate infection (1,000–9,999 epg) 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 1 0.8  
Ascaris lumbricoides 0 0.0 2 1.2 0 0 0 0 2 1.6 0.252
 Light infection (1–4,999 epg) 0 0.0 2 1.2 0 0 0 0 1 0.8 < 0.001
 Moderate infection (5,000–49,999 epg) 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 < 0.001
Giardia intestinalis 0 0.0 1 0.6 0 0 0 0 1 0.8 0.612
Entamoeba coli 0 0.0 1 0.6 1 0.8 2 1.3 1 0.8 0.833
Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 na
Balantidium coli 1 1.0 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.403
  1. aExposure groups: Com peri-urban : people living in the peri-urban commune Duyen Ha, 5 km away from the city along the Red River; Com urban : people living in the urban area of Hanoi, in Bang B village or Tam Hiep commune along the To Lich River and potential exposed to wastewater; Farmer peri-urban : peri-urban farmers living in Duyen Ha commune using the irrigation water from Red River, wells or local drains, which are not contaminated with the city’s wastewater; Farmer urban : urban farmers living in Bang B village or Tam Hiep commune reusing wastewater from To Lich River; and Worker HSDC : workers from Hanoi Sewerage and Drainage Company (HSDC) maintaining drainage channels and operating the Yen So treatment plants
  2. bIntestinal parasitic infection includes: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm and any intestinal protozoa
  3. cSoil-transmitted helminth infection includes: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm
  4. dPrevalence rate is calculated out of the results of the examination of a single stool sample by means of duplicate Kato-Katz and the formalin-ether concentration method, infection intensity by the examination via duplicate Kato-Katz
  5. Abbreviation: epg, eggs per gram; na, not applicable