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Table 6 Results of univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis for total parasitic infections (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm and intestinal protozoa) in a cross-sectional survey in the Than Tri district, Hanoi, between April and June 2014

From: Intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors in communities exposed to wastewater in urban and peri-urban transition zones in Hanoi, Vietnam

Intestinal parasitic infectiona
(total population, N = 681; infections 13.6 %, n = 93)
Infections Univariate logistic regressionc Multivariate logistic regressionc
n % OR 95 % CI P-valued aOR 95 % CI P-valued
Exposure groupb Com peri-urban 101 6.9 1.00    < 0.001 1.00    
Com urban 170 10.0 1.49 0.60 3.73 0.392 1.61 0.61 4.22 0.333
Farmer peri-urban 129 30.3 5.82 2.48 13.68 < 0.001 5.30 2.05 13.69 0.001
Farmer urban 153 11.1 1.68 0.67 4.21 0.269 1.72 0.60 4.91 0.314
Worker HSDC 128 10.2 1.52 0.58 3.96 0.393 2.11 0.71 6.24 0.179
Sex Male 166 12.1 1.00        
  Female 512 14.6 0.84 0.49 1.42 0.511 0.77 0.42 1.41 0.395
Age     1.02 1.01 1.04 0.001 1.01 1.00 1.03 0.122
Educational attainment Never went to school 15 20.0 1.00    0.035     
Primary school 92 16.3 0.78 0.20 3.10 0.723 0.67 0.15 3.03 0.604
Secondary school 306 17.0 0.82 0.22 3.00 0.763 0.68 0.16 2.96 0.605
Tertiary school 205 8.8 0.39 0.10 1.49 0.167 0.33 0.07 1.62 0.173
  Higher education 63 7.9 0.34 0.07 1.64 0.181 0.51 0.09 3.01 0.459
Socioeconomic status Most poor 155 18.6 1.00    0.114     
Poor 178 11.8 0.61 0.33 1.12 0.110 0.89 0.44 1.82 0.754
Less poor 173 15.6 0.84 0.47 1.50 0.552 1.80 0.86 3.74 0.116
Least poor 175 9.7 0.49 0.26 0.93 0.030 1.07 0.48 2.39 0.868
Number of people per household    0.90 0.79 1.01 0.067 0.93 0.82 1.05 0.250
Toilet facility at home Yes 661 12.9 1.00        
No 20 40.0 5.14 2.10 12.57 < 0.001 3.12 0.88 11.03 0.078
Toilet facility at work Yes 458 12.1 1.00        
No 195 17.4 1.54 0.96 2.48 0.076 0.87 0.47 1.60 0.653
Wastewater cause health issues No 86 22.1 1.00        
Yes 595 12.4 0.50 0.28 0.88 0.016 0.74 0.39 1.40 0.352
Flooding of living area No 654 13.9 1.00        
Yes 27 7.4 0.49 0.12 2.13 0.344     
Flooding of working area No 538 13.4 1.00        
Yes 143 14.7 1.11 0.66 1.88 0.687     
Drinking tap water No 150 14.0 1.00        
Yes 531 13.6 0.96 0.57 1.63 0.890     
Drinking rain water No 628 13.4 1.00        
Yes 53 17.0 1.32 0.62 2.81 0.464     
Drinking bore hole water No 595 12.9 1.00        
Yes 86 18.6 1.54 0.85 2.78 0.155 0.91 0.41 2.01 0.808
Bathing with tap water No 90 16.7 1.00        
Yes 591 13.2 1.69 0.71 4.00 0.232     
Bathing with rain water No 647 13.3 1.00        
Yes 34 20.6 1.31 0.80 2.13 0.278     
Bathing with bore hole water No 514 12.8 1.00        
Yes 167 16.2 1.27 0.15 10.97 0.830     
Preventive chemotherapy received in the past < 6 months 69 7.2 1.00    0.038     
6 to <12 months 77 6.5 0.89 0.25 3.21 0.857 0.83 0.20 3.42 0.798
<12 months 493 15.6 2.37 0.92 6.08 0.073 2.53 0.92 6.95 0.072
Never took deworming 42 14.3 2.13 0.61 7.48 0.237 1.87 0.48 7.25 0.363
  1. aIntestinal parasitic infection includes: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm and any intestinal protozoa
  2. bExposure groups: Com peri-urban : people living in the peri-urban commune Duyen Ha, 5 km away from the city along the Red River; Com urban : people living in the urban area of Hanoi, in Bang B village or Tam Hiep commune along the To Lich River and potential exposed to wastewater; Farmer peri-urban : peri-urban farmers living in Duyen Ha commune using the irrigation water from Red River, wells or local drains, which are not contaminated with the city’s wastewater; Farmer urban : urban farmers living in Bang B village or Tam Hiep commune reusing wastewater from To Lich River; and Worker HSDC : workers from Hanoi Sewerage and Drainage Company (HSDC) maintaining drainage channels and operating the Yen So treatment plants
  3. c P-values were obtained from likelihood ratio tests. The core of the multivariate model included exposure group, sex, age, educational attainment, socioeconomic status and number of people per household. In addition, all risk factors with a P-value < 0.2 in the univariate analyses were included into the multivariate regression analysis (as indicated in the table)
  4. d P-values were obtained from likelihood ratio tests overall P-value of the respective categorical variable are indicated in italic letters