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Table 1 Summary of diagnostics for heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in dogs from Australia

From: Mosquito-borne heartworm Dirofilaria immitis in dogs from Australia

Animal (dogs) Immunology Parasitology Molecular diagnostics (real-time PCR)   Heartworm prevention
FVS-CN# Age (yrs) Witnessa DiroCHEKb Knott’s test Dog (Ct)c Filaria (Mff#/ml)d D. immitis (Mff#/ml)e Clinical signs Compliancef Active
1 6.0 Positive Positive Positive 7 Inconsistent na
2 9.0 Positive Positive Positive Present Yes Selamectin
3 2.0 Positive Positive Positive 27.6 10 14 na na
4 7.5 Positive Positive Positive 35.0 165 147 Present na na
5 3.0 Positive Positive Positive 31.1 10 9 na na
6 6.7 Positive Positive Positive 26.8 Yes Milbemycin oxime
7 8.0 Positive Positive Positive 26.4 835 571 Yes Ivermectin
8 10.0 Positive Positive Positive 24.9 215 204 na na
9 3.8 Positive Positive Positive 26.2 118 52 Yes Milbemycin oxime
10 5.1 Positive Positive Positive 27.7 46 15 inconsistent na
11 na Positive Positive Positive 24.5 23,376 60,527 inconsistent na
12 2.8 Positive Positive Positive 30.2 24 460 Yes Moxidectin
13 2.0 Positive Negative Positive 24.3 126 77 Present inconsistent na
14 4.0 Positive Positive Positive 32.9 3 0 na na
15 7.0 Positive Positive Positive 22.4 912 610 na na
16 2.0 Positive Positive Positive 23.0 940 261 na na
17 3.0 Positive Positive Positive 24.9 165 518 na na
18 2.0 Positive Negative Positive 25.2 124 239 na na
19 2.0 Positive Positive Positive 24.6 34 261 Present Yes Milbemycin oxime
20 3.0 Positive Positive Positive 26.3 1,184 3,471 na na
21 2.0 Positive Positive Positive 28.6 36 130 Yes Milbemycin oxime
22 13.0 Positive Positive Positive 28.2 70 52 Present Yes Milbemycin oxime
23 2.0 Positive Positive Positive 28.8 60 416 Yes Milbemycin oxime
24 3.0 Positive Positive Positive 38.8 1 77 na na
25 5.0 Positive Positive Positive 26.6 4,543 8,042 Present inconsistent na
26 3.0 Positive Positive Positive 24.5 58 319 inconsistent na
27 3.0 Positive Positive Positive 34.1 16 157 inconsistent na
28 10.0 Positive Positive Positive 28.8 11,214 1,478 inconsistent na
29 2.0 Positive Positive Positive 36.7 12 na na
30 10.0 Positive Positive Positive 24.3 2,022 9,551 Yes Ivermectin
31 7.0 Positive Positive Positive 23.9 177 217 na na
32 6.1 Positive Positive Positive 24.1 15 321 Yes Milbemycin oxime
33 na Positive Positive Positive 28.8 41 45 Present inconsistent Ivermectin
34 5.5 Positive Positive Positive 23.7 8,745 15,976 Present Yes Milbemycin oxime
35 6.0 Positive Positive Positive 37.4 198 320 n/a na
36 4.0 Positive Positive Positive 24.8 44,966 1,866 n/a na
37 2.1 Positive Positive Positive 35.6 31 5,717 Yes Milbemycin oxime
38 7.0 Positive Positive Positive 28.8 142 4,505 Yes Moxidectin
39 1.8 Positive Positive Positive 27.4 773 276 Yes Milbemycin oxime
  1. aIn-clinic Witness Dirofilaria® (Zoetis, Australia), a Rapid Immuno-Migration (RIM®) Assay for detection of adult female D. immitis (heartworm) antigen in dogs
  2. bDiroCHEK® (Zoetis, Australia) an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of adult D. immitis antigen
  3. cCanine ß-actin real-time PCR assay for sample adequacy evaluation, Ct <30 is considered adequate (n = 28, 72 %)
  4. dArthropod-borne filarioids high-resolution melt (HRM) real-time PCR assay targeting filarioid mitochondral 12S rRNA gene, reported as microfilaria (Mff) in ml of blood
  5. e D. immitis species-specific real-time PCR targeting cox1 gene fragment, reported as microfilaria (Mff) in ml of blood
  6. fRigorous compliance (Yes) was noted if client indicated year round administration with appropriate product, ‘inconsistent’ compliance if heartworm preventions were missed or intermittently administrated or incorrect dose administered, and ‘na’ if such information was not available or was unknown