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Table 2 Therapeutic efficacy of IVM LAI against natural infestations of first-stage and second- and third-stage larvae of Hypoderma spp

From: Treatment and control of bovine hypodermosis with ivermectin long-acting injection (IVOMEC® GOLD)

Study Treatmenta (Study day) NI/NGb GMc (Range) Efficacyd (%) Z-value P-valuee
   Live Hypoderma lineatum larvae   
1. Italy Control (day 0) 9/11 2.8 (0–17)   
IVM LAI L1f (day 0) 0/11 0 100 3.6150 0.0003
IVM LAI L2/L3g (day 84) 0/11 0 100 3.6150 0.0003
   Live Hypoderma bovis larvae   
2. Germany Control (day 0) 7/10 1.5 (0–8)  
IVM LAI L1 (day 0) 0/10 0 100 3.0729 0.0021
IVM LAI L2/L3 (day 125) 0/10 0 100 3.0729 0.0021
3. USA Control (day 0) 6/8 1.8 (0–22)  
IVM LAI L1 (day 0) 0/8 0 100 2.8387 0.0045
  1. aControl = Saline; IVM LAI = ivermectin long-acting injection (IVOMEC® GOLD)
  2. bPrevalence: Number of cattle infested/Number of cattle in group
  3. cGeometric mean live larval count [based on transformation to ln (count + 1)]
  4. dEfficacy = 100× (GM Control – GM IVM LAI/GM Control)
  5. eProbability from Wilcoxon rank sum test
  6. fTreatment during the L1 stage of development
  7. gTreatment during the L2/L3 stages of development