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Fig. 4 | Parasites & Vectors

Fig. 4

From: Nitric oxide and cytokine production by glial cells exposed in vitro to neuropathogenic schistosome Trichobilharzia regenti

Fig. 4

Cytokine production by murine primary astrocyte and microglia cultures exposed to Trichobilharzia regenti derived stimulants. Sandwich ELISA was used to measure the concentration of IL-1β (a), IL-6 (b), TNF-α (c), IL-10 (d), and TGF- β1 (e) in cell supernatants 48 h after the cells were exposed to the stimulants. Key: −, non-stimulated group (a negative control); +, LPS-stimulated group (a positive control); LS, living schistosomulum-like stages stimulated group; HSF, soluble fraction of LS homogenate stimulated group; CB1.1, recombinant T. regenti cathepsin B1.1 stimulated group; CB2, recombinant T. regenti cathepsin B2 stimulated group. Data are shown as the mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of five independent experiments. Significant differences in comparisons with the non-stimulated group are marked by asterisks: *P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 (Dunn’s multiple comparison test)

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